يكاد ينعدم مفهوم أو التصور الكلى للمواطنة والوطنية عند الصوماليين، وإذا وجد وجدان عند البعض فإنه لايرقى الى المستوى التصورى الصحيح للمواطنة، ومنشأ هذا – في نظرى – يرجع إلى أمور منها: طبيعة المجتمع الصومالى الرعوية وأصوله البدوية، والتي بالطبع تتطلب الإنتقال والارتحال من وإلى أماكن متباينة ومختلفة، وتقسيم الإستعمار للأراضى الصومالية وإخضاعه إلى دول الجوار مما أدى إلى تشتيت وتفكيك الأسرة الواحدة بعدة مناطق مختلفة تخضع كل واحدة إلى سيادة دولة مجاورة، مما بدوره يؤدى إلى الإنتقال السهل والسريع من منطقة إلى أخرى وإكتساب جنسيتها والتوطن عليها، وهكذا تكون الحلقة مفتوحة إلى مالانهاية وهو ما أسفر بضياع الهوية الصومالية بحيث افتقدت الأساس التكوينى للهوية لأن الهوية تكوّن كما هو معلوم وقضية إعادة الهوية قضية شائكة ومعقدة وتحتاج إلى بحث مستقل وإجراء دارسات تطبيقية عديدة وتكاتف الخبرات وتعاون المتخصصين في مجال الدراسات الإنسانية المختلفة.
وإذا أعدنا الذاكرة قليلاً إلى الورى ونظرنا الفن الصومالى بأنواعه نجد أن القدامى قد حالوا بإبراز مفهوماً للمواطنة في الأدب الصومالى كل حسب الألم الذي يساوره والحزن والأسى الذي يحرق داخله بما آلت اليه الأمور من ضياع الحرية وفقد الوطنية وحب الوطن ، وما حل بنا من وهن وذل وضعف… الخ.
نلمس هذه الأحاسيس كلها ضمن السياق الشعرى أو الأدبى في الفن الصومالى، وكثيرُ من تلك الأبيات ركبت فيها اللحن والموسيقى وغنّ بها المغنّون واستعمله قدمائنا لإشعال حماس – خصوصاً زمن الحرب- الحربيين والمناضلين وإثارة عواطف الشباب والشعب لتوظيف كافة مقدراتهم على سبيل الوطن ؛ وأشهر من استخدم هذا هو النظام العسكرى بقيادة جنرال “محمد سياد برى” رحمة الله عليه وذلك حرب الصومالى الإثيوبى لسنة 1977م.
فما عدا ما أشرنا اليه فلا يوجد مفهوم جامع مانع للمواطنة لدى الصوماليين عموماً إلا ما يستثنى منه وهو شاذ اذا قورنت بمفاهيم القانونية والشرعية السالفة الذكر.
خلاصة الكلام عن المواطنة:
كما أشرنا سابقاً عند الكلام عن مفهوم المواطنة عند القانون الوضعى بأنها – رغم اختلاف نظرة فقهاء القانون فيها- عبارة عن عقد يعقدها بين طرفين الفرد من جهة والدولة من جهة أخرى؛ بحيث يترتب على ذلك مجموعة من الحقوق المطلوب للدولة توفيرها للفرد وواجبات يجب للمواطن التحمل بها وما ينشأ منها من مسؤوليات سواء كانت تقصيرية أو جنائية أو غير ذلك من المسؤوليات.
وتطرقنا بالنظرة الإسلامية لمفهوم المواطنة وقلنا أن مفهومها قبل مجيئ الرسالة المحمدية كانت قائمة على أساس القبلى والعشائرى وأن الإسلام قد ألغى تلك المفاهيم وجعل الناس سواسية كأسنان المشط وأن المواطنة كانت قائمة بعد إقامة الدولة الإسلامية على أساس العقيدة بحيث مجرد إعتناق الإنسان على هذه العقيدة الجديدة يصبح مواطناً للدولة الإسلامية ويتمتع بكافة الحقوق التي يتضمنها الدستور أو الصحيفة وبالمقابل يتحمل الواجبات والتبعات المترتبة على ذلك.
وقلنا أن الأحكام التي كانت مطبقة في صدر الإسلام تستحيل تطبيقها في عصر التكنولوجيا والعولمة وزمن تقسيمات النظم السياسية المختلفة والمتضادة بعضها – اذا صح التعبير-، وفي عصر الدولة القطرية والوطنية وأوردنا بعض اجتهادات علماء العصر أمثال : “د:يوسف القرضاوى، وأحمد الريسونى، وغيرهم لم نورد في مقالنا” القاضى بإمكانية إقامة الخلافة الإسلامية بشكل النظم العصرية كالفدرالية أو الكونفدرالية، ورأي آخر فحواه بأنه إنعدام الخلافة عند المسلمين لايؤدى بالضرورة الى فقدان الدين ولا يؤثر بمثقال ذرة من ذلك ولكن اذا اختفى العدل والشورى ونظام الحكم فتلك طامة كبرى.
وإلى هنا نكتفى موضوع “مفهوم المواطنة” والتي قصدتها ضمن محاولة شخصية بسيطة لتوضيح بعض جوانب الموضوع والذي مما لاريب فيه أكبر بكثير مما سطرته هنا وأعمق بكثير مما اتضح لي وأصعب بكثير سبر أغواره وإحاطة أطرافه وجوانبه، وهناك أطروحات كثيرة وكتب ضخمة ناقشت الموضوع بموضوعية وعلمية ولكن محاولة صوملة المعرفة أراها ضرورية لأننا ما زلنا في بداية الطريق والذي نرجو أن يهوينا الى حضارة وتطور تلحق بنا الى الأمم المتقدمة بنا بآلاف ميل وقرون .
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