القبيلة السياسية في الصومال:
بعد انهيار الحكومة المركزية في الصومالي عانى المجتمع بعدد من الأزمات السياسية والاقتصادية والاجتماعية منها التشرذم القبلي وانعدام السلطة المركزية والحروب الأهلية والانحرافات الأيدولوجية والفكرية التي أدت إلى حروب دينية وأهلية لايعرف أحد أوجهها الخفية، بالإضافة إلى التدخلات الخارجية بسبب أو بأخرى، وأجندات لايعرفها إلا المدبرون، وبرزت أيضاً القبيلة السياسية، لذا أعلن بعض القبائل انفصالها عن جسم جمهورية الصومال عام 1991م، بعد اتقاقيات وهمية شارك بعض القبائل الشمالية في مدينة برعو، وعلى أساس ذلك قامت ما يسمى جمهورية أرض الصومال(صومال لاند) وفتحت باب تمزيق الوحدة الصومالية، وبعد مدة أسس عبد الله يوسف ولاية بونت لاند عام 1998م، في أرض مجيرتينيا بأساس قبيلة، وأصبحت فيما بعد الساعية لنظام الفيدرالي في الصومال، وذكر أن بونت لاند لا تثق على أي نمط دون النظام الفيدرالي، بسبب الحروب الأهلية وعدم ثقة القبائل بعضهم لبعض، وعارض عبد الله يوسف حكومة عبد القاسم صلاد حسن التي أنتخب في جيبوتي2000، وأصبح المهدد الأول لحكومة عبد القاسم، وبدأ يشجع ويحرض زعماء مقديشو الخروج على حكومة عبد القاسم، وواجهت حكومة عبد القاسم عقبات جمة أكبرها زعماء مقديشو، وبدأ مؤتمر كينيا 2002م، بعد فشل حكومة عبد القاسم لإستتاب أمن الصومال عامة ومقديشو خاصة.
تطبيق النظام الفيدرالي في الصومال:
أول حكومة فيدرالية شهدها المجتمع الصومالي كانت حكومة عبد الله يوسف التي أنتخب في إمبغاتي 2004م، وهي أول حكومة نادت وطبقت الحكم الفيدرالي في الصومال، وجاءت بعد مناقشات طال أمدها، لزعماء الحرب الذين لهم دور في فشل حكومة عبد القاسم، وإن كان المؤتمر خصص على الزعماء إلا أن بعض فصائل المجتمع المدني شارك، ورأى المجتمع الدولي أن أي حكومة صومالية لا يشارك فيها زعماء الحرب تكون كالبيت الشعري الآتي “ترجو النجاة ولم تسلك مسالكها* إن السفينة لاتجري على اليبس” لذلك حاول المجتمع الدولي تأسيس حكومة صومالية يقودها زعماء الحرب، ليصبح أكبرها رئيساً ويشارك الآخرون في الحكم. وكتب ميثاق صومالي فيدرالي مؤقت، الصادر في 15/سبتمبر سنة 2003م، ومكتوب فيه نحن الوفود الصومالية الممثلة لشعب جمهورية الصومال، اتفقنا بشكل رسمي على الوضع والمصادقة لهذا الميثاق الفيدرالي الانتقالي، وفي مادته الأولى يقرر الميثاق أن نظام الحكم هو فيدرالي انتقالي، وغُير إسم الجمهورية الصومالية إلى الجمهورية الفيدرالية الصومالية أنظر(الدستور الصومالي الانتقالي 2003، ص:1)
ومن المعلوم أن مؤتمر المصالحة الصومالية في كينيا والذي استمر قرابة سنتين تمخض عنه في نهاية المطاف قيام حكومة صومالية فيدرالية مؤقتة قائمة على أساس ميثاق فيدرالي، وسواء كان تبني نظام الفيدرالية خدعة للصومال حالك الظلام وعلى غفلة من المجتمع الصومالي، أم جاء نتيجة لبحث ملخص وحل صادق تم العثور عليه بعد تقليب وجهات النظر في القضية المستعصية حلها، وروعيت فيها مصالح البلاد القومية والدينية والتاريخية والتطلعات المستقبلية، وأياً كان الأمر فإن حقيقة التي لاشك فيها هي أن الشعب الصومالي قابل ذلك القرار المصيري الهام بالصمت واللامبالاة.
ويعتقد كثير من المحللين أن هذه الفكرة الفيدرالية جاءت من جهات دولية تأثيرهم أقوى، وأجبروا الصومال بأخذها. أوعلى الأقل دول الجوار ذات أطماع ومصالح، لأن وحدة صومالية تؤْذي على مصالحهم، يعني إذا عادت دولة صومالية قوية لاشك أنها تطالب حق مصير الشعب الصومالي المعيش تحت قهر وغلبة دول الجوار، لئلا تأتي هذه المطالبة تحاول دول الجوار أن تصد جميع سبل الوحدة الصومالية، وزرعوا بين أبناء الصومال قنبلة موقوتة يمكن أن تؤدي إلى صراع قبلي أو دول فيدرالية ذات أطماع وامتيازات في داخل حكومة الاتحاد.
إمكانية إقامة الحكم الفيدرالي في الصومال:
عقد في نيروبي في يومي 26-27 من نوفيمبر 2008م مؤتمر لمناقشة الفيدرالية في الصومال، وشارك ممثلو حكومة عبدالله يوسف أول حكومة بنيت على أساس فيدرالي، وممثلوا تحالف إعادة تحرير الصومال (جناح جيبوتي) وأساتذة صوماليين لهم شهرة واسعة في المجال العلمي من خارج وداخل الصومال، بالإضافة إلى منظمات دولية، وجهات معنية أخرى، وحاول المؤتمر توصيف أيّ النظم السياسية أنسب بالصومال، النظام الفيدرالي أم الكونفدرالي أم المركزي، وأيّ الطرق أسلم لتقاسم السلطة والثروة في البلاد، هل محل أساس إقليمي أم قبلي (4.5) أي معادلة تجمعات أربعة قبائل ونصف قبيلة، أم على أساس نظام اتحادي بين الجنوب والشمال فقط. وأثناء المؤتمر تمت مناقشة مفهوم الفيدرالية وما ينطوي من دلالات من أوجه مختلفة على مائدة البحث ومقارنته بأنظمة الحكم الأخرى، وتحديد المضاعفات السلبية الناجمة عن تطبيف الفيدرالية فيما يتعلق بمسائل توزيع السلطة والثروة ورسم الحدود بين المناطق والقبائل المختلفة. والنقطة التي وقّف عندها الخبراء الذين تحدثوا في المؤتمر هي أن نظام الفيدرالي ليس صالحاً للشعب الصومال، بل هو أشبه القبلة الموقوتة تكاد تنفجر لعدة أسباب أهمها:
- إن الشعب الصومالي ليس متمايزاً على أساس مناطق أو قبائل بشكل واضح.
- القبائل الصومالية منتشرة ومتداخلة في أغلب المحافظات والمدن مثل مدينة جالكعيو وكسمايو ومقديشو ولاسعانود، وبارطيري وبلدوين وبوعو وبورما وغيرها.
- الشعب الصومالي يتمتع بجميع مقومات الوحدة المشتركة من حيث اللغة والدين والمذهب والتقاليد.
وبعد مناقشة حادة بوجهات نظر المشاركين في المؤتمر وإبداء الرأي بين طرفين: هما معارضون للنظام الفيدرالي عرضوا حجح وبراهين رأوا أنها صواب، والجانب الأخر أيدوا للنظام الفيدرالي، وجاؤو بحجج يعتقدون أنها أصوب وهي كالأتي (أنظر عبد القادر معلم محمد قيدي، إشكالية تداول السلطة وأثرها في بناء الدولة الصومالية، دكتوراه، ص:383):
حجج أنصار الفيدرالية في الصومال:
فيما يبدو أن الكثيرين إقتنعوا أو على الأقل لم يعارضوا النظام الفيدرالي طالما أن الصومال مرت بالمراحل التالية:
- مرت الصومال بفترة حروب أهلية خلقت جواً من عدم التفاهم، وفقدان الثقة بين القبائل ووجود المخاوف من عودة حكومة مستبدة (دكتاتورية)، وتصوروا أن النظام الفيدرالي ضروري للصومال.
- إن انهيار النظام السابق مرده غياب العدل وسوء توزيع السلطة والثروة، لذا فالنظام الفيدرالي سيقرر الحقوق الخاصة لكل منطقة أو عشيرة.
- تقصير الظل الإداري وتقريب مراكز القرار وسرعة حل المشاكل من جانب حكومة الولاية بحيث تستجيب مشاكل المواطنين بشكل فوري.
- توزيع مشاركة المواطنين وإرتفاع إهتمامهم بمشاكل ولايتهم.
حجج الإتجاه المعارض على تطبيق النظام الفيدرالي في الصومال:
يقول معارضو النظام الفيدرالي في الصومال إن هذا النظام لا يصلح للشعب الصومالي بالأسباب الآتية:
- إنه سيشكل مشكلة جديدة، تضاف إلى قائمة المعضلات السياسية المزمنة في الصومال، وسيبرز آثاره في رسم الحدود بين المناطق وتوزيع السلطة والثروة بالذات.
- النظام الفيدرالي لايناسب للبلد كالصومال، حيث تتوفر فيه كل عناصر الوحدة بين المواطنين، والنظام الفيدرالي يناسب مع بلد توجد فيه الفوارق والتباين بين السكان.
- النظام الفيدرالي لم يأت بدراسة علمية واعية، وطارئ على الصومال وتطبيقه بهذه الحماسة كفيل بفشله وإخفاقه كما كان مصير الإشتراكية العلمية في عهد الحكومة العسكرية.
- النظام الفيدرالي نظام أجنبي مستورد إلى الصومال، ولا يترجم عن رغبات المجتمع الصومالي، بل هو مؤامرة حلها أعداء الصومال لتمزيق ما تبقى من هذا الجسم المنهك.
- الصومال بلد يعد من البلدان الفقيرة، وخزينة الدول لا تتحمل بتكاليف وأعباء النظام الفيدرالي المالية، ويؤدي أن يوجد داخل البلد الواحد عدد من الحكومات ذات سيادة تتمتع بالاستقلالية في شئونها. كما نرى اليوم ما تفعل بونت لاند، وصومال لاند بالإضافة إلى جوبا لاند مؤخراً.
- إن تطبيق الفدرالية في بلد مثل الصومال يعيش في مخلفات حروب أهلية يؤدي تمزيق وضياع وحدته.
- النظام الفيدرالي يؤدي إلى تقاعس الحكومات المحلية عن تنفيذ قرارات الحكومة المركزية، وهذا سيؤدي إلى ضياع هيبة الدولة.
- التوجهات السياسية اليوم عالمياً وإقليمياً تتجه نحو التجمع والاتحاد، والابتعاد عن التفرق والانفراد، وهنا اليوم توجه أفريقي نحو الفيدرالية على مستوى القارة. فمن باب الأولى أن تحافظ الصومال على وحدتها، وتسعى بعد ذلك في الاتحاد مع بلدان أخرى.
- النظام الفيدرالي يقلل من شخصية المواطن الصومالي وطموحه، وهو طريق إلى قيام أنظمة محلية ضعيفة البناء قائمة على العصبية العرقية والقبلية.
تقييم الحجج وبراهين المؤتمرين:
إن هذه الحجج التي أوردناها ليست إلا وجهة نظر الشعب الصومالي، أما حجج أنصار الفيدرالية ضيف للغاية ولم يُبْن على حجج معقولة قائمة على علل يقبلها العقل السليم بل حججهم مقصورة على عدم ثقة القبائل بعضهم ببعض، وهذه الفكرة مدفوعة من جهات مصلحية أخرى، وبعض الناس يعتقدون أن أنصار هذه الفكرة ليسوا إلا رسل من جهات أخرى، أو متحدثين بأسماء أمم أخرى، لايعرفون بمصالهم وراء دفع الفكرة وتعبئة أنصارها.
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