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قطوف من العلاقات الثقافية والعلمية بين الجزيرة العربية والقرن الإفريقي2/2

وحسب قراءة النصوص التاريخية يظهر أنّ ثقافة أهل منطقة القرن الإفريقي، كانت تستوعب ما كان يجري في محيطهم السياسي والثقافي والاجتماعي، لا سيما تجاه الجزيرة العربية، وكانوا يدركون أنّ التكامل الاجتماعي والثقافي يعزز على التقدم الحضاري، وبذلك كانت أبوابهم مفتوحة لكل من يقدم عليهم مرحبين ومستقبلين بكل حب وأريحية، ومن هنا لم يأت من فراغ سهولة تتفق المهاجرين إلى المنطقة، وإمكانية سهولة اندماجهم وامتزاجهم القوي مع المجتمع دون أن تسجل معوقات يذكر تجاه ذلك. ويبرهن على ذلك ما سيأتي من قائمة المهاجرين أسراً وأفراداً الذين رحلوا إلى المنطقة كنموذج، ومن هؤلاء:

– السيد حسن بن عبد الله بن عبد الرحمن السقاف، وكان له أربعة بنين هاجروا في أماكن متفرقة في منطقة القرن الإفريقي، كمدينة مقدشو الساحلية، وأماكن أخرى في المنطقة،  وقد وصل كل من عقيل ومحمد من أبناء السيد حسن إليها، ثم مكثوا فيها، وقد ترك عقيل ذرية في مقدشو وغيرها، وتكاثروا فيما بعد وهم الذين يطلق عليهم آل باحسن الفقيش، أما محمد ترك أيضاً ذرية في الحبشة ويسمى فروعه آل باحسن الطويل، علماً أنًّ جد مجموعات آل باحسن الفقيش في الحبشة وجنوب بلاد الصومال وخاصة مقدشو وضواحيها هو السيد عبد الله بن حسن بن عبد الله بن عبد الرحمن السقاف المشار إليه آنفاً. 1

– أبناء للسيد طالب بن حمزة  بن الحسين آل الشيخ أبي بكر بن سالم المتوفي وسبع وثلاثون وألف وكان من الذين عاشوا في مقدشو، والهند، وجاوا وغير ذلك، علماً آل الشيخ أبي بكر بن سالم أحد فروع آل علوي بن الفقيه المقدم.  2

  • أبو بكر بن عقيل أحد أبناء عبد الله الشهير بالشلي كان له عقب بهرر وبر سعد الدين ( زيلع) وبعض بلاد الحبشة. 3
  • السيد محمد حمدون بن علي جحدب بن عبد الرحمن بن محمد بن عبد الله من آل عبد الله با علوي المتوفي 997هـ في تريم كان له عقب في الحبشة وهرر؛ لأنّه ابنه عمرب ن محمد كان من سلالته عبد الله بن عمر، وقد انتشروا آفاقا مختلفة منها منطقة القرن الإفريقي، وهم الذين يُعرفُون بآل حمدون. 4
  • السيد عبد الله وطب بن محمد المنفرمن آل عبد الله با علوي كان من الأشراف العلويين في بلاد اليمن، وقد توفي سنة وأربع وثمانين وثممائة ، وكان له ستة بنين تركوا أعقابا في أماكن مختلفة في منطقة القرن الإفريقي مثل: بعض المدن الساحلية في بلاد الصومال ،كمدينة زيلع، ومركة، بالإضافة إلى بعض الجزر في الساحل الإفريقي الشرقي. ومن بين أولاده أحمد مرزق وعلوي حويلة، وعمر فدعق، ومبارك، وعلي المندرج ، وقد تفرع هؤلاء ما عدا علوي حويلة ، وكان له ذرية قليلة ولكنهم انقرضوا كلهم.
  • أما أحمد مرزق فكان له ثمانية بنين اثنان انقرضا هما محمد وعلي ولهما ذرية قليلة بزيلع واليمن، وعبد الله له ذرية انقرضوا ، ولكنه بقي واحد هو أحمد بن محمد بصنعاء، ومحمد بن أحمد بالحبشة، أما عبد الرحمن بن أحمد وصل عقبه إلى جزيرة سقطرا القريبة إلى الصومال ، وكذا أخوه عبد الله بن أحمد كان له ذرية انقرضوا ولكنه بقي واحد أحمد بن محمد بصنعاء، كما ترك محمدبن أحمد عقب في بلاد الحبشة وإن لم يحدد في منطقة في الحبشة.
  • والسيد علوي الرقاق كان له عقب بمدينة مركة الساحلية في جنوب بلاد الصومال وكذا في بته وبيجافور ( لعله بعض الجزر في الساحل الإفريقي الشرقي القريبة بالصومال). أما علوي الرقاق بن أحمد كان له عقب بمدينة مركة الساحلية في جنوب بلاد الصومال، التي تبعُد عن عاصمة مقدشو 90 كيلو متر في جهة جنوب. والأخير شيخ بن أحمدترك عقبا يطلق عليهم آل مشهور مرزق بشبام في جنوب شرقي آسيا في بلاد جاوا. 5
  • والسيد محمد بن عبد الله بن أحمد بن أبي بكر الورع من آل أحمد بن الفقيه المقدم كان له عقب وصل إلى منقطة القرن الإفريقي وخاصة بر سعد الدين. 6
  • والسيد علوي بن محمد حسين بلفقيه كان له عقب في سقطرا. 7
  • هاشم ومحمد ابناء عمر بن علوي الشاطري كان لهما عقب بزيلع ولحج. والمعروف أن أسرة آل الشاطري ينتسبون إلى السيد علوي الشاطري بن علي بن أحمد بن محمد أسد الله بن حسن الترابي بن علي بن الفقيه المقدم، علما أنّهم انتشروا إلى آفاق بعيدة ومختلفة، وقد ضمت الأسرة عدداً من الأفذاذ ذوي الفضل والفكر والعلم والتُقي، ورجال الدعوة والجهاد ، منتشرين بحضرموت وعدن، ولحج، والحجاز، وماليزيا، واندونيسا وإفريقيا. 8

وما أشرنا إليه آنفاً يبرهن مذى عمق علاقة منطقة الشرق الإفريقي بالجزيرة العربية، ولا سيما فيما يخص بالحياة العلمية والثقافية، علماً أنّ هذا التواصل الثقافي الذي لم ينقطع عبر العصور المختلفة، وأن علماء المسلمين وفقهائهم عند ما أتوا إلى المنطقة اشتركوا مع إخوانهم في الحياة الثقافية العلمية، كما زاولوا معهم في الجوانب الأخرى، مثل: القضاء وفصل الخطاب وكذلك في مجال الفتوى، كما فعل ذلك القاضي علي حميدة، الذي تولى منصب قاضي قضاة في مملكة كلوه الإسلامية، وكذا العالم المحدث حسن الشيرازي الذي نبغ في علوم الحديث والتفسير. 9

إضافة إلى الشيخ علي بن إبراهيم نور الدين المفتي، الذي قرأ الفقه، والفرائض، والحساب، كما برز في تلك المملكة العالم الجليل آدم أبوبكر الجبرتي من علماء اللغة العربية البارزين”. 10

لم يقتصر ازدهار الحياة الثقافية في مملكة كلوه على علماء المحليين فحسب، بل شمل أيضاً بعض من العلماء الذين توافدوا على مملكة كلوه الإسلامية، من مختلف الأقطار الإسلامية للتدريس في المدارس التي قامت في البلاد، وفي المساجد إحساساً منهم بواجبهم الإسلامي تجاه إخوانهم في تلك المملكة، وإسهاماً منهم في نشر الثقافة العربية والإسلامية فيها. ومن أشهر هؤلاء العلماء الذين طافوا أرجاء العالم الإسلامي ثم استقروا في كلوه الشيخ الفقيه عمر بن عثمان الفولاني، ت 718 ه / 1227م، ووصف بأنه من قُراء القرآن الكريم ومن الراسخين في الدراسات الإسلامية، واللغة العربية، وعلم التصوف، كالفقيه والقاضي محمود بن محمد بن أقيت، ت 887 ه / 1356م من علماء السودان الغربي ، رحل إلى مصر والحجاز لأداء فريضة الحج، وبعد أدائه لفريضة الحج شد الرحال إلى مملكة كلوه وأخذ على عاتقه تعليم طلاب تلك المملكة علوم الفقه والأصول وعلم الكلام الأم. 12

وخلاصة القول فقد كان لعلماء مملكة كلوه دوراً بارزاً في إثراء الثقافة العربية والإسلامية بجميع فروعها بتلك المملكة ، كما كان لهؤلاء العلماء مكانة بارزة لدى سلاطين كلوه الذين احترموهم وأسقطوا عنهم وظائف السلطنة.

………………….

[1]) شمس الظهيرة،  المصدر السابق ص 228

[1]) االمرجع نفسه ص، 297

[1]) االمرجع نفسه، ص، 346

[1]) االمرجع نفسه ص، 349 – 350

[1]) شمس ، المصدر السابق ص 357 – 358

[1]) شمس ، االمرجع السابق ص387

[1])  شمس ، االمرجع نفسه ص 398

 ([1] انظر شمس هامش رقم 2 من ال المرجع السابق ص 453

[1] ) الجهيمي، حمد محمد: الحياة الثقافية بمملكة كلوه الإسلامية فيما بين القرنين السابع والتاسع الهجريين / الثالث عشر الخامس عشر الميلاديين، من مجلة المجلة الليبية العالمية التابع بكلية التربية بجامعة ننغازي، العدد الرابع – ديسمبر  2015م، ص 48.

[1] ) الجهيمي، حمد محمد: الحياة الثقافية بمملكة كلوه الإسلامية، مرجع سابق، ص 45.

[1] ) حمد محمد الجهيمي: الحياة الثقافية بمملكة كلوه الإسلامية، مرجع سابق، ص 51

د/ محمد حسين معلم علي

من مواليد مدينة مقديشو عام 1964، أكمل تعليمه في الصومال، ثم رحل إلي المملكة العربية السعودية ليواصل رحلته العلمية حيث التحق بجامعة أم القرى قسم التاريخ الإسلامي حيث تخرج في عام 1991م، ونال الماجستير بنفس الجامعة في عام 1998م ،كما واصل دراسته في كل من السودان والنرويج، حيث نال درجة الدكتوراة بجامعة النيلين عام 2006م، أما في مملكة النرويج فقد تخصص بالدراسات التربوية وكذا الثقافات واللغات المتعددة في جامعة همر بالنرويج. وعمل أستاد التاريخ والحضارة الإسلامية في الجامعة الإسلامية في مقديشو - الصومال، وهو عضو في عدد من المنظمات المحلية والإقليمية والدولية، أصدر "ديوان الشاعر بعدلي" عام 2002م ، و"الثقافة العربية وروّادها في الصومال" عام 2010م، وله عدة بحوث أخرى، يقيم الآن بالنرويج .

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