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الحرب الباردة الجديدة 

نظراً لأن الحرب الباردة كانت تعكس المنافسات الأيديولوجية الشرسة بشأن شكل ونوع النظام الذي يمكن أن يلبي تطلعات الجنس البشري على وجهها الأفضل، خلق ذلك الصراع المحتدم حتمية ضرورية للولايات المتحدة لأن ترقى إلى مستوى تلك الصورة الراقية التي صورها لها العالم. كذلك، ولأن المنافسة الشديدة كانت تستلزم من الولايات المتحدة التعبئة والاحتشاد على جميع المستويات من أجل مواكبة الصراع طويل الأمد، فلقد دفعت البلاد دفعا إلى الاستثمار في تحسين وتطوير الذات.

وبإمعان النظر في حركة الحقوق المدنية الأميركية، شكلت بعض النجاحات الكبرى ضد التمييز الذي ترعاه الدولة، وحالات الإقصاء السياسية، ومظاهر العنف العنصري، قدراً من أهم المنجزات المحلية في الولايات المتحدة لا سيما في فترة ما بعد حقبة تلك الحرب الباردة، وكانت ذات ارتباط وصلة وثيقة بهذه الحرب.

يقال إن التاريخ لا يعيد نفسه إلا هزليا. شيء من الهزل السياسي شاب استدعاء الحرب الباردة رغم غياب حقائقها منذ أكثر من ثلاثة عقود. من علامات الهزل السياسي أن تبدأ الأزمة بسؤال فى حديث تلفزيوني عما إذا كان الرئيس الأمريكي يعتقد أن نظيره الروسي «قاتل».. ثم يجد معاونو «بايدن» أنه لابد عليهم أن يوضحوا للرأي العام أن ما قاله الرئيس لم تكن فلتة لسان، وأنه كان يقصد ما قاله تماما وغير نادم عليه حتى لا يطعن في قدرته الذهنية على إدارة مصالح بلاده. ومن علامات الهزل السياسي بحث كل طرف في الأزمة المستجدة عن مسوغات تبرر موقفه، شرعية أو غير شرعية، صحيحة أو منتحلة، داخل الموضوع أو خارجه.

الأمريكيون ينعون على الروس إهدار حقوق الإنسان واضطهاد المعارضين السياسيين، مثل «إليكسى نافالنى»، الذى تعرض للتسميم ثم المحاكمة والسجن، والتدخل العسكرى فى أوكرانيا وشبه جزيرة القرم، فيما الروس يعتبرون التعريض بـ«بوتين» بهذه الطريقة إهانة جماعية. الملاسنات تمددت إلى التاريخ بإشارة «بوتين» إلى طبيعة نشأة الولايات المتحدة، حين ارتكب المستعمرون الأوروبيون الذين وفدوا إلى الأراضى الجديدة مذابح جماعية بحق السكان الأصليين فى أمريكا وإلى أن الولايات المتحدة كانت الدولة الوحيدة التى استخدمت سلاحا نوويا ضد دولة أخرى.

إذا دخل العرب فى صياغة لائحة اتهامات القتل فإنها سوف تتمدد إلى ما لا يمكن حصره. ثم وصل الهزل السياسى إلى حد اقتراح «بوتين» إجراء مناظرة مع «بايدن» عبر وسائل التواصل الحديثة يشهدها ويحكم عليها العالم بأسره! بمنطق أو بغير منطق استبيح كل شىء، ما هو تاريخى وما يعوزه الدليل، ما هو شخصى وما يتعلق بمصالح الدول العليا، غير أن طرفى الأزمة المستجدة يدركان أن اللعبة لا تتجاوز التوظيف السياسى، كل لأسبابه الداخلية!

لا «بايدن» سوف يمضى فى التصعيد إلى أكثر من العقوبات واستثارة ذكريات الحرب الباردة حين كانت لأمريكا الكلمة الأولى فى المعادلات الدولية. ولا «بوتين» بوارد قطع العلاقات مع الولايات المتحدة، فقد أكد جازما على رغبة بلاده فى «الإبقاء على العلاقات على النحو الذى تراه».الملاسنات فى جوهرها تعبير عن أوضاع قلق وتأزم يستبق نظام دولى جديد يوشك أن يولد من تحت ضربات جائحة «كورونا».«بايدن» يستدعى شبح «ترامب» لإكساب رئاسته ما تحتاجه من شعبية الاقتناع العام بجدارته بالحكم بعيدا عن إرث سلفه الذى نال بفداحة من صورة الولايات المتحدة. و«بوتين» يوظف ما تورط فيه نظيره الأمريكى من تفلت لفظى لإكساب نفسه شرعية جديدة تبرر طول البقاء فى الحكم.

يقف وراء هذه الأنماط والحملات الجديدة- التي يمكن أن تتم بمعرفة دول أو منظمات خارجية خفية تعمل لصالح مرشحين بعينهم عبر نشر تقارير مضللة- قراصنة محترفون مهمتهم التلاعب بتوجهات وعواطف الرأي العام، ما يؤدي في المحصلة النهائية إلى التحكم في إرادة الناخبين لمصلحة جهات بعينها عبر التلاعب وتزييف المعلومات والبيانات. والأمثلة حول ذلك كثيرة، منها الممارسات المشبوهة لحملات رئاسية أفريقية جرت أخيراً، بما في ذلك إعادة انتخاب فوري غناسينجبي، رئيس جمهورية توغو، في فبراير (شباط) 2020، وكذلك الجدل المستمر حول التلاعب في حملة الانتخابات الأميركية الأخيرة التي أوصلت دونالد ترامب إلى البيت الأبيض. ولا يفوتنا في هذا المقام التقرير الذي أصدرته أخيراً “لجنة الاستخبارات والأمن” لدى البرلمان البريطاني، الذي أشار بوضوح إلى هجمات إلكترونية نفذها قراصنة روس هدفها توجيه الرأي العام إلى اتخاذ قرارات بعينها أثناء استفتاء اسكتلندا عام 2014، وكذلك خلال حملة بريكست.

يحاول القراصنة السيبرانيون، الذي يتخفون وراء شاشات حواسيبهم عبر سلسلة من الهويات المزيفة والمجموعات المشبوهة والصور الخادعة، إثارة تغيير واسع النطاق. ويمكن للقرصان أن يكون أي شخص تقريباً: منظمة متطرفة أو عميل استخبارات أو حملة حزبية أو حتى فرد ذو قدرات سيبرانية رفيعة المستوى. يقوم هؤلاء باستحداث حسابات مزيفة يتنكرون عبرها بوصفهم من مواطني البلد المستهدف، ثم يقومون بدفع الجمهور إلى صفحات خارج منصات التواصل الاجتماعي، حيث تنخرط هذه الصفحات في تكتيكات مهمتها تغيير تركيز الجمهور من المواضيع غير السياسية إلى المواضيع السياسية عن طريق ضخ رسائل تصب في مصلحة طرف سياسي معين. وتعد منصة “فيسبوك” تحديداً، وشقيقاتها “تويتر” و”إنستاغرام” و”واتساب”، أشهر ميادين عمل القراصنة الجدد. إذ تحوّلت هذه المنصات إلى ساحة تُخاض فيها الحروب الباردة بحيث يكون فيها الفاعل مجهولاً، وباتت فضاءً استراتيجياً لتطبيق نظريات التأثير في الحشود والإقناع والتسويق السياسي عن طريق المحتوى المموّل. ولطالما وصلت تحقيقات أجهزة الاستخبارات التي طالت المنصة لتحديد الجهات التي تقف وراء هذه الحملات المشبوهة إلى حائط مسدود.

وكما ظهر من الحرب الباردة السابقة، فإن هذه المخاطر ليست متوهمة، حيث صار الطعم الشيوعي الأحمر من الاستراتيجيات الانتخابية الناجعة. ويستغل أنصار الانتهازية السياسية شعارات معاداة الشيوعية بصورة جد ساخرة كسلاح ماض في المناقشات والجدالات الداخلية بشأن حقوق العمل وغيرها من القضايا المهمة الأخرى. ونجحت النزعة الماكارثية في تضفير كل تلك الخيوط معا كي تميط اللثام عن أسوأ ما تمخضت عنه سياسات الحرب الباردة.

وتركزت هذه الظاهرة حول شخصية سياسية رعناء برزت من خلف الكواليس إلى بقعة الضوء من خلال المزاعم الفاضحة حول الخيانة الوطنية والتخريب الداخلي. ولكنها ما حازت الزخم الكبير الذي عايشته إلا لأنها استغلت الحركة الشعبية الموازية لها أيما استغلال. وكانت تلك الحركة قد استجابت راغمة للمخاوف الحقيقية من انتشار جواسيس الشيوعية، وتداعيات ذلك من ملاحقات الحملة العقابية التي وأدت الحياة، وعصفت بالحريات المدنية، ودفعت العديد من حلفاء الولايات المتحدة آنذاك إلى التساؤل عما إذا كانت واشنطن تؤمن حقاً بالقيم والمبادئ التي تزعم الدفاع عنها ومناصرتها.

ومن حسن الحظ، أن هذا الخط لا يمثل سوى جزء يسير من مجمل تاريخ الولايات المتحدة إبان حقبة الحرب الباردة. وكانت حمى المكارثية قد نشطت في البلاد بحلول منتصف خمسينات القرن الماضي، وبرهنت المؤسسات الوطنية الأميركية على رسوخها وثبات أركانها وأنها كانت أقوى من التحديات التي فرضتها عليها تلك الحركة. وإجمالاً للقول، كان صراع القوى العظمى وقتذاك بمثابة القوة الدافعة من أجل التغيير البنّاء في الداخل الوطني الأميركي.

أجل، استغل أنصار الفصل العنصري ومكتب التحقيقات الفيدرالية ثيمة معاداة الشيوعية في شن الهجمات الضارية على مارتن لوثر كينغ الابن وعلى غيره من دعاة وزعماء الحقوق والحريات المدنية. لكن وبصفة عامة، كانت الحرب الباردة تمثل قوة من قوى المساواة نظراً لواقع العلاقات العرقية داخل المجتمع الأميركي وغير المتوافقة مع جهود الحكومة الأميركية في كسب تأييد ومناصرة القلوب والعقول في بلدان العالم الثالث.

وصرح الرئيس الأسبق هاري ترومان في عام 1947 قائلا: «لا بد من كسب مناصرة وتأييد شعوب البلدان البائسة التي مزقتها الحروب من أجل أسلوب الحياة الحرة. ولم يعد بإمكاننا تحمل رفاهية شن الهجمات الفارغة ضد التحيز والتمييز العنصري».

وأقرت وزارة العدل الأميركية، في عهد الرئيس الأسبق دوايت آيزنهاور في عام 1954 أن التمييز العنصري يغذي نهم الدعاية الشيوعية في البلاد. وصرح وزير خارجية الولايات المتحدة آنذاك جون فوستر دالاس في عام 1957 قائلا بلهجة واضحة وقاسية: «إن التمييز العنصري المؤسسي في البلاد يهدد سياساتنا الخارجية تهديدا شديدا».

ومن واقع قرار الرئيس ترومان بإلغاء الفصل العنصري داخل القوات المسلحة الأميركية، إلى التدخل الفيدرالي لوقف الفصل العنصري في المدارس منذ خمسينات القرن الماضي، وحتى تمرير قوانين الحقوق المدنية التاريخية، والتشريعات التي تضمن حقوق الناخبين في الستينات، كانت ضرورة الدفاع عن النظام الأميركي العام في الخارج تشكل قوة دفع قوية للعمل على تحسين هذا النظام ومجرياته في الداخل الأميركي.

ولنطرح على أنفسنا سؤالاً مهماً: لماذا تملك الولايات المتحدة أفضل وأحسن نظم التعليم العالي على مستوى العالم؟ لقد أسفرت تداعيات الحرب الباردة السابقة عن توفير دعم غير مسبوق للجامعات الأميركية في وقت السلم، ولا سيما في أعقاب مفاجأة الاتحاد السوفياتي للعالم بإطلاقه للقمر الصناعي «سبوتنيك» في عام 1957، الأمر الذي دفع الحكومة الفيدرالية الأميركية إلى ضخ المزيد من الأموال فيما نطلق عليه اليوم اسم تخصصات العلوم والتكنولوجيا والهندسة والرياضيات، والتي كانت ذات ضرورة كبيرة في المنافسات العلمية في عصر صواريخ الفضاء.

ومن بين الأمور التي كانت أقل معرفة وإنما أكثر حيوية وحسما كانت رعاية الحكومة الفيدرالية لبرامج التدريب اللغوي وبرامج الدراسات المتخصصة، والعلوم الاجتماعية، وسواها من التخصصات التي تعد ضرورية في بسط التأثير والنفوذ على الصعيد العالمي. وبحلول عام 1961 كان 77 قسماً من أصل 90 قسماً أكاديمياً في جامعة ويسكونسن منخرطة ضمن برامج مسددة التكاليف من جانب الحكومة الفيدرالية. وصارت جامعة هارفارد المرموقة، ومعهد ماساتشوستس للتكنولوجيا، وبعض المؤسسات الأكاديمية الخاصة الأخرى، من بين أفضل المؤسسات التعليمية والجامعية على مستوى العالم. وكانت حقبة الحرب الباردة بمثابة العصر الذهبي للجامعات الأميركية، نظرا لأنها نجحت في إقناع قادة البلاد بحتمية أن تظل البلاد قوة عظمى على الصعيد الفكري والعلمي والتعليمي حتى تبقى قوة عظمى كذلك على الصعيدين العسكري والاقتصادي.

وباتت العديد من الجوانب الأخرى للازدهار في الولايات المتحدة تدين بالفضل الواضح والكبير لحقبة الحرب الباردة. فلقد أقيمت مشاريع كثيرة للبنية التحتية في البلاد، فضلا عن نظم الطرق السريعة بين الولايات الأميركية، كانت لها أسبابها وتداعياتها الجيوسياسية الواضحة. كما ضمنت النفقات الفيدرالية السخية على جهود البحث والتطوير في ظهور أشباه الموصلات، وشبكة الإنترنت، والتقانات الأخرى الكثيرة التي نجحت في نقل الولايات المتحدة إلى عصر المعلومات. ومن دون الحرب الباردة لم نكن لنعرف معنى «وادي السليكون» في ولاية كاليفورنيا.

وعلى نطاق أكبر، وفر الإنفاق العسكري الهائل إبان حقبة الحرب الباردة محفزات شبه دائمة فضلا عن ملايين الوظائف الجيدة للأفراد في مختلف أفرع القوات المسلحة وقطاع الصناعات الدفاعية في البلاد. وفي خاتمة المطاف، انتصرت الولايات المتحدة في الحرب الباردة؛ نظراً لأن نظامها المعتمد برهن على أنه أكثر ثباتاً وجاذبية من نظام الاتحاد السوفياتي. ومن بين أبرز أسباب جاذبية النظام الأميركي أن الحرب الباردة استمرت في دفع الولايات المتحدة لمواصلة الاستثمار في ديناميات حياتها ونظامها الخاص.

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