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معارض الكتب في الصومال ودورها في تنمية الوعي الثقافي للمجتمع ( معرض مقديشو للكتاب نموذجا)

يعتبر الكتابة والقراءة من أهم مقوّمات الأمم وتطوّرها، ذلك أنها يساهمان في تنمية الفكر الإنساني وتزويده بخبرات السابقين واللاحقين.

وقد اهتم الإسلام بالقراءة والكتابة منذ نزوله حيث كانت أول آية نزلت على رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم قوله تعالى: “اقرأ باسم ربّك الّذي خلق” كما أن بعض أسرى قريش في غزوة بدر الكبرى أفدوا أنفسهم بتعليم أولاد المسلمين في المدينة المنورة القراءة والكتابة، وهذا يدلّ على مدى اهتمام الإسلام بالكتابة والقراءة وتقديره لدورهما في استمرار حياة البشرية وتطوّرها.

ولقد اهتمت المجتمعات البشرية بمختلف أجناسها وقومياتها بالقراءة والكتابة، وإن كانت المجتمعات الإسلامية في مقدّمة هؤلاء، خاصة في عصورها الذهبية، حيث اشتهرت في الأوساط الإسلامية حكم وأمثال تعلي من شأن القراءة والكتابة، ومن أهم ماجاء في هذا المجال بيت شعر عربي لأبي الطيب المتنبي يقول فيه:

أعز مكان في الدّنى سرج سابح ::: وخير جليس في الأنام كتاب

ويقول أحمد شوقي مفضلا الكتاب على الأصحاب:

أنا من بدّل بالكتب الصحابا ::: لم أجد لي وافيا إلا الكتابا

وهناك مثل ألماني يقول: “لا ينمو الجسم إلا بالطعام والرياضة ولا ينمو العقل إلا بالمطالعة والتّفكير”

كلّ هذه الأبيات والأمثال توضّح مدى أهمية القراءة والكتابة للمجتمعات البشرية، ودورها في تحقيق التطور والتقدّم الّذي تنشده الأمم المعاصرة.

وانطلاقا من تلك الأساسيات انطلقت فعاليات معارض الكتب في عدد من المدن الصومالية ازدادت وتيرتها في السنوات العشر الأخيرة والتي شهدت انطلاق معارض للكتاب في عدد من أهم المدن الصومالية مثل مقديشو، هرغيسا، غرووي، بيدوة، كسمايو، عذاذو، وغيرها من المدن الصومالية الأخرى، وهنا يجدر بنا استعراض موجز تاريخي لمعارض الكتاب في الصومال:

من الملاحظ أن الاهتمام بعالم الكتاب والقراءة بصورته الحديثة بدأ يتشكّل في أوساط المجتمع الصومالي ما بعد الحروب الأهلية، ولا يعني ذلك أن اهتمام الصومال بالكتاب والقراءة يبدأ من تلك الفترة، فقد سجّل التاريخ الاهتمام المتزايد للشعب الصومالي بالمعرفة والثقافة العربية والإسلامية منذ فترة سحيقة من التاريخ مما أدّى إلى ظهور عمالقة صوماليين في الكتابة والتأليف، كما سجّل التاريخ إنجازات طلبة العلم الصوماليين في تلك الفترة، إلاّ أنّه ليس هذا موضوع بحثنا، وإنما نحاول الوصول إلى معرفة بداية معارض الكتاب في الصومال بصورة واضحة وهنا نسرد أهم معارض الكتب في الصومال:

  1. المعرض الأول للكتاب في مقديشو: وهو معرض للكتاب نظمته مكتبة الإحسان بمقديشو في مارس/آذار 2006م، وقد تم فيه عرض الكتب العلمية والثقافية التي تهم الدّارسين في الجامعات الصومالية، واستمرّ هذا المعرض لمدّة 15 يوما.
  2. المعرض الثاني للكتاب في مقديشو: وهو أيضا من تنظيم مكتبة الإحسان بمقديشو، نظمته في أكتوبر/تشرين الأول/2006 أي حوالي بعد 6 أشهر من المعرض الأوّل الّذي لقي استحسانا وقبولا واسعا من قبل المجتمع التعليمي في مقديشو مما أدى إلى تنظيم معرض آخر للكتاب بعد 6 أشهر، وقد شارك في المعرض الثاني بعض المسؤوليين من بينهم النائب السابق لرئيس برلمان الحكومة الانتقالية أحمد أبروني أمين ومسؤولين من القطاع التعليمي في الصومال[1].

بعد هذه المحاولة الفريدة من نوعها دخلت مقديشو في مرحلة جديدة من الحروب نتجت عن اجتياح القوات الإثيوبية لقوات المحاكم الإسلامية ودخولها – أي القوّات الإثيوبية- حرب شوارع في مقديشو مع فصائل المقاومة المسلّحة التي خاضت حروبا شرسة ضد القوات الإثيوبية، مما ترك آثارا سلبية على الحياة العامة في مقديشو فتوقفت عجلة الحياة من الدوران الطبيعي، وبذلك ماتت أول محاولة وليدة في عالم معرض الكتاب في الصومال، إلاّ أن معارض الكتاب بدأت تعود إلى الحياة بعد فترة وجيزة ليس في مقديشو وإنّما في مدن أخرى كان أولها:

  1. معرض هرغيسا الدولي للكتاب: وانطلق هذا المعرض في أغسطس/آب 2008م، وهو معرض سنوي للكتاب تستضيفه مدينة هرغيسا عاصمة صوماليلاند.
  2. معرض مقديشو للكتاب: وهو معرض سنوي للكتاب تستضيفه العاصمة الصومالية مقديشو، انطلق في أغسطس 2015م.
  3. معرض غرووي الدولي للكتاب: وهو معرض سنوي للكتاب تستضيفه مدينة غرووي عاصمة بونتلاند، انطلق في 2016م.
  4. معرض كسمايو للكتاب: انطلق في 2017م، وتستضيفه مدينة كسمايو العاصمة المؤقتة لجوبالاند.
  5. معرض بُرارُغ (الصحوة) الدولي للكتاب: انطلق من هرغيسا في يناير/ كانون الثاني 2018م.
  6. معرض بُرعو للكتاب: انطلق في أغسطس/آب 2018م.
  7. معرض عذاذو للكتاب: انطلق في سبتمبر/أيلول 2018م.
  8. معرض بورمي للكتاب: انطلق في يوليو/تموز 2019م.
  9. معرض بيدوة للثقافة والفنون والمحاصيل الزراعية والكتاب: تستضيفه مدينة بيدوة العاصمة المؤقتة لولاية جنوب غرب الصومال، وانطلق في أغسطس/آب 2019م[2].

تلك هي أهم معارض الكتاب التي انطلقت في أرجاء الصومال في السنوات العشر الأخيرة، وقد ساهمت هذه المعارض بدون شكّ في رفع ثقافة القراءة والكتابة لدى المبدعين الشباب من أبناء الشعب الصومالي، إذ يلاحظ ذلك في الإنتاج الفكري المتزايد منذ انطلاق هذه المعارض للكتاب.

معرض مقديشو للكتاب … فخر وأمل:

انطلق رسميا معرض مقديشو للكتاب في 26 /أغسطس- آب/2015م، وقد تأسس هذا المعرض بجهود مثقفين صوماليين في الداخل والخارج، حافزهم الأول في ذلك رفع ثقافة القراءة والكتابة في المجتمع الصومالي وخلق تصوّر إيجابي عن المجتمع الصومالي الّذي أنهكته الحروب والمجاعات والخلافات القبلية التي عرقلت كل المسيرات الهادفة إلى إحداث تنمية شاملة في المجتمع، وخلافا لما عرف بالمجتمع الصومالي يسعى معرض مقديشو للكتاب إلى تقديم صورة إيجابية عن المجتمع، صورة تتحدّث عن مجتمع راق مهتم بالكتاب تواق إلى المعرفة والمطالعة، يبحث عن طرق للتواصل مع العالم المتقدّم عبر الكتب والندوات العلمية والبرامج الثقافية الأخرى التي ترافق الفعاليات المختلفة لمعرض مقديشو للكتاب والذي يستمر انعقاده بانتظام في عامه الخامس، مما يجعله مدعاة فخر واعتزاز للمجتمع الصومالي حيث إن ممارسة عمل ثقافي كهذا وعلى هذا الوجه بالتحديد، لم يسجّل منذ فترة وهو ما يبعث الأمل في نفوس الشعب الصومالي وخاصة إذا اتفقت وسائل البرنامج مع غاياته، حيث استطاع هذا المعرض بتحقيق إنجازات كبيرة بالنسبة لفترته الزمنية المحدودة، ومن أهم هذه الإنجازات:

  1. استقطاب عدد كبير من الزوار والمشاركين والحضور، حيث أكّد الدكتور محمد ديني مؤسس المعرض ومديره في حديث له مع مركز مقديشو للبحوث والدّراسات في 22/من الشهر الجاري، أكّد الدكتور في حديثه ذلك أن المعرض يشهد ازديادا ملحوظا في الإقبال سواء من حيث الحضور والضيوف والمواد المقدّمة خلال فترة المعرض[3].
  2. تنويع البرامج والأنشطة المعروضة في المعرض: لا تقتصر فعاليات معرض مقديشو للكتاب على عرض الكتب وبيعها واشترائها في المعرض فقط، وإنّما هناك فعاليات وأنشطة ثقافية وأدبية أخرى تقدّم خلال مدّة عرض برامج المعرض، وتشمل هذه البرامج محاضرات وندوات علمية وأنشطة أدبية وترفيهية وغير ذلك من أنشطة تساهم في تنمية الفكر الإنساني وتطويره، ومن الندوات العلمية التي عقدت في الدورة الخامسة لمعرض مقديشو للكتاب ندوة علمية حول تحديد من هو الصومالي، شارك فيها عدد من الكتاب والمثقفين من بينهم الدكتور حسين عبده علمي نائب وزير الدّستور في الحكومة الفيدرالية ومؤلف كتاب النظام الفيدرالي (HANNAANKA DISTUURIGA) وكاتب جيبوتي اسمه إبراهيم أحمد علي، وجواهر طاهر مثقفة وكاتبة من العقول الصومالية المهاجرة، وياسمين محمود كاتبة صومالية من العقول المهاجرة أيضا، ورغم أن تنوع مداخلات المثقفين حول تحديد الصومالي إلاّ أنّه يمكن القول على أن الجميع اتفقوا على أن الصومالية تأتي عن طريق العرق ورابطة الدم مما يعني أن كلّ شخص من أصول صومالية سواء ولد في الأراضي الصومالي بما فيها منطقتي أنفدي والصومال الغربي وجيبوتي أو ولد في الأراضي الأجنبية مثل أوروبا وأمريكا وغيرها من مختلف بقاع العالم يعتبر صوماليا، سواء تحدّث باللغة الصومالية أم لم يتحدّث بها، وفي ذلك إشارة إلى أن الصومالية ليست بجنسية يُحصل عليها فقط وإنما هي انتماء إلى العرق الصومالي. كذلك كان من بين الندوات ندوة نظمتها الأكاديمية الصومالية للعلوم والفنون والآداب تمّ فيها تقديم إنتاجات مبدعين صوماليين في مجال تطوير اللغة الصومالية، وغير ذلك من الندوات العلمية المختلفة والتي تسلط الضوء على موضوع من المواضيع ذات العلاقات المتينة بالمجتمع الصومالي وتطوّره.

كلّ هذه الإنجازات وغيرها مما يبعث الأمل في نفوس المنظمين لمثل هذه المعارض، خاصة، أنّه يلاحظ أن معرض مقديشو للكتاب ساهم وبشكل فعّال في التشجيع على التأليف إذ إنه ازدادت ثقافة التأليف وسط المجتمع الصومالي بعد انتظام عقد هذا المعرض للكتاب كما أفاد بذلك مؤسس معرض مقديشو للكتاب في حديثه لمركز مقديشو للبحوث والدّراسات[4].

ويقترح الباحث مصطفى فيروز لتنمية أداء معارض الكتب في الصومال ما يأتي:

  1. رفع نسبة دور النشر والتوزيع المشاركة في المعارض لكونها نقطة الوصل بين الكاتب والقارئ.
  2. إضافة أو تنمية الأقسام التي يعرض فيها كتب الأطفال والكتب الجامعية.
  3. إضافة برامج النقد الأدبي وتحليل الكتب المؤلفة وإجراء نقاشات علمية حول العناوين التي تضمنتها هذه الكتب في طيّاتها[5].

وختاما، يبدو أن المجتمع الصومالي قد بدأ يولي اهتماما كبيرا بالثقافة المكتبية، وتلك خطوة إيجابية خطاها المجتمع الصومالي نحو التقدّم والاستقرار والازدهار، إلاّ أنّها بحاجة إلى تنمية مستدامة ومشاركة فعّالة من قبل شرائح المجتمع الصومالي لكي يتم التغلّب على التحديات التي تواجهه والمتمثلة في المشاكل الأمنية والاقتصادية، حيث إن معرض مقديشو للكتاب ليس له ميزانية مخصصة، وليس له جهة تموّله غير مساهمات الشركات والبنوك التجارية في الصومال وبعض المؤسسات الخيرية الدولية، مما يعني أنّه في حال فقدان هذه المساهمات المالية أو بعضها فسيؤثّر ذلك سلبا على عمليات سير المعرض وبالتالي سيؤدّي ذلك إلى نتائج سلبية، لذا ينصح على المهتمين بتنمية المجتمع الصومالي وتطويره العمل على إزالة أو تقليل أثر هذه التحديات.

[1] . مصطفى فيروز، معارض الكتب … ملتقى ثقافي بحاجة إلى مزيد من الاهتمام والتنمية، مقال نشر باللغة الصومالية على https://wardheernews.com/bandhigyada-buugta-madal-aqooneed-mudan-kobcin-iyo-tabantaabo/?fbclid=IwAR10EdiyuFezGiiXKR4OgvGGtIKCv-iPYDn4YJ-nN_VPUBFlKStZGnB0Iow#.XWAb1-7QdZM.facebook

[2] . مرجع سابق.

[3] . http://mogadishucenter.com/2019/08/%D9%85%D8%B1%D9%83%D8%B2-%D9%85%D9%82%D8%AF%D9%8A%D8%B4%D9%88-%D9%8A%D8%AC%D8%B1%D9%8A-%D8%AD%D9%88%D8%A7%D8%B1%D8%A7-%D9%85%D8%B9-%D9%85%D8%A4%D8%B3%D8%B3-%D9%88%D9%85%D8%AF%D9%8A%D8%B1-%D9%85%D8%B9/

[4] . مرجع سابق.

[5] . مصطفى فيروز، مرجع سابق

عمر محمد معلم حسن

الكاتب عمر محمد معلم حسن باحث أكاديمي وكاتب صومالي

مقالات ذات صلة

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