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الطرق الصوفية في الصومال

مقدّمة

تتّفق معظم المصادر التاريخية على أن الطّرق الصوفية ساهمت وبشكل كبير في نشر الإسلام بطريقة سلمية في كثير من بقاع الأرض، أبرزها منطقة شرق أفريقيا بوجه عام، والصومال بوجه خاص.

وتشير المصادر التاريخية إلى أن وجود الطرق الصوفية في الصومال كان متزامنا مع حركة الهجرات العربية وغير العربية إلى المنطقة في القرون الأولى من فجر الإسلام، حيث يعتقد بعض المؤرّخين أن الإسلام وصل إلى شرقي أفريقيا قبل وصوله إلى المدينة المنوّرة، في إشارة منهم إلى الهجرتين الأولى والثانية إلى الحبشة التي قام بها المسلمون الأوائل فرار بدينهم من بطش كفّار قريش الّذين عارضوا الدعوة الإسلامية منذ بدايتها وحاربوها، بحجّة أنها مبنية على خلاف ما توارثه الأجيال من تقديس للأصنام والأوثان.

وقد اشتهر في تاريخ الإسلام بمنطقة شرقي أفريقيا عدّة طرق صوفية كان لها – ولا زال-  دور في نشر الثقافة الإسلامية وتعليم علوم اللغة العربية.

 الطرق الصوفية الأكثر انتشارا في الصومال:

اشتهرت في الصومال عدّة طرق صوفية، إلاّ أنّه يمكن حصر هذه الطرق بما يأتي:

  1. الطريقة الأحمدية: أسسها أحمد بن إدريس الفاسي الّذي لم يكن صوفيا فحسب بل كان مصلحا دينيا جرّد الصوفية من كثير من بدعها ونادى بالاعتماد على الكتاب والسنة. وحمل الطريقة إلى شرقي أفريقيا شيخ صومالي اسمه علي ميي دُرُغبو (Cali Maye Durugbo)، واهتم أتباع هذه الطريقة بنشر الإسلام الصحيح وثقافته بين السكان[1].
  2. الطريقة الصالحية أو الرشيدية: أسسها إبراهيم بن الرشيد وابن عمه محمد بن صالح، وانتشرت هذه الطريقة – التي عملت على إحياء الروح الإسلامية وتعميق فهم الإسلام ونشر الإسلام وثقافته- في الصومال البريطاني[2]. ويعدّ السيد محمد عبدالله حسن الّذي حارب الاحتلال الأوروبي والحبشي، أحد أتباع هذه الطريقة في الصومال.
  3. الطّريقة القادرية: ينسب هذه الطريقة إلى مؤسسها الشيخ عبدالقادر الجيلاني من أشهر رجال الصوفية، ولد بجيلان عام 471هـ/1077م، وترعرع بها ، ثم انتقل إلى بغداد عام 488هـ/1095م، وهناك تتلمذ على كبار الشيوخ منهم أبو سعيد المحرمي، فأجاد الفقه والأدب، واشتغل بالوعظ والتعليم، ومال إلى التصوف ومجاهدة النفس والخلوة، ففارق ضجيج المدن وضوضائها واتجه إلى الصحراء[3]. وتعدّ الطريقة القادرية أقدم طريقة صوفية وصلت إلى شرقي أفريقيا مع التجار والمهاجرين اليمنيين، فانتشرت بالمدن الساحلية كمصوّع – التي يعتقد بعض سكّانها أن عبدالقادر الجيلاني نفسه مات بها أثناء زيارته لها-، وزيلع ومقديشو، وهرر[4]. كما قام أتباع القادرية بشرقي أفريقيا بنشاط ديني وعلمي، حيث أنشأوا المراكز العلمية والدينية المتمثّلة بالزوايا والروابط العلمية فخرّجت جماعات من المريدين والفقهاء الذين ساهموا في نشر الإسلام في كلّ من إثيوبيا وإرتريا وتنزانيا، والصومال[5]. “ويعتبر الشريف أبوبكر بن عبدالله العيدروس المتوفى عام 1503 من أوائل مؤسسي الطريقة القادرية في الصومال، ثم تبعه من المشاهير الشيخ حسين نور المعروف بـحسين بالي، الذي تورد الروايات الشفهية أنه جاء من بغداد لنشر الطريقة القادرية وأنه أول من مزج ترديد الأوراد مع ضرب الدف، بادئا ذلك بلفظ الشهادة (لا إله إلا الله) حتى يجذب العوام والأهالي للإسلام. وكان أشهر دعاة الطريقة القادرية الشيخ محيي الدين القحطاني (1794-1869)، والشيخ عبدالعزيز بن عبدالغني الأموي ( 1834-1896)، الذي تولى القضاء في عهد كل من السيد سعيد وابن السلطان ماجد. وأسس الشيخ إبراهيم حسن عيسى حبرو، أول مركز للطريقة القادرية في الصومال عام 1819، ببلدة بارطيري على نهر جوبا، ومن هذا المركز انتشرت الطريقة إلى باقي أنحاء البلد، وكان من كبار مشايخها المتأخرين هناك الشيخ عبدالرحمن بن عبدالله الشاسي، الشهير بـالشيخ الصوفي، المتوفى عام 1919 م وهو مؤسس الزاوية القادرية في مقديشو[6].

ويبدو أنّ الطرق الصوفية عموما، والطريقة القادرية خصوصا، كان ينحسر دورها في نشر الثقافة الإسلامية والعربية بين أبناء الصومال، حيث تكاد معظم المصادر التّاريخية تتفق على أن الصوفية لم يكن لها وجود في الحياة السياسية الصومالية، مما جعلها نوعا ما منعزلة عن الحياة المدنية المعاصرة، فكان نتيجةً لذلك أن يسميّها البعض بالحركات الإسلامية التقليدية وذلك للتفريق بين الحركات الإسلامية المعاصرة المعروفة بحركات الصحوة، والطرق الصوفية.

مكانة الطرق الصوفية بين المجتمع الصومالي:

احتلّت الطرق الصوفية محلّ الصدارة في المجتمع الصومالي، لكونه مجتمعا إسلاميا يحبّ دينه والعاملين عليه، ولكون الطرق الصوفية تمثّل السلطة الدينية للمجتمع حيث كان عليها قيادة المجتمع نحو الوجهة الصحيحة، خاصة أن الطرق الصوفية كانت تبتعد عن التكتلات القبلية، مما جعلها موضع ثقة عند كثير من المجتمع الصومالي، فكانت الطرق بذلك تقوم بحل الخلافات والمشاكل المستعصية التي عجز عن حلّها زعماء القبيلة التقليدية، إضافة إلى ذلك كانت الطرق تقوم بتعليم أبناء المجتمع الصومالي العلوم الشرعية والعربية حتّى خرّجت جيلا مسلّحا بالعلم الشرعي والعربي.

لكن وبعد التوجه نحو الحياة المدنية وبناء مؤسسات الدولة الحديثة والتي تتسم بالتعقيد، بدأت مكانة الطرق الصوفية تتراجع إلى الوراء حيث أنّه يمكن القول أنّه لا يوجد وجود للصوفية في الحكومات المتعاقبة ما بين 1960 _ 1991م، مما أدّى إلى أن تفقد مكانتها في المجتمع شيئا فشيئا، ويورد بعض الباحثين عددا من الأسباب ساعدت على تقهقر مكانة الطرق الصوفية لدى المجتمع الصومالي، ومن بين هذه الأسباب:

  1. انحسار أعمالها في زوايا ضيّقة: يقول عبدالرحمن محمد عادلي في حديثه للجزيرة نت “أنّ ضعف دور الطرق الصوفية يعود لتفريطها في العلاقة مع الشعب، حيث حصرت أداءها في زوايا ضيقة لا تتعدى الجانب الديني دون التغلغل في المجتمع ودون الاعتماد على مشاريع تعليمية أو تجارية كبيرة”[7].
  2. مداهنة السلاطين: يقول أنور ميو محمد في حديثه للجزيرة نت “أن مداهنة التيار الصوفي للحكام وزعماء الفصائل وعدم قدرته على الدفاع عن أفكاره بالحجج، تسببت في تراجع دوره وشعبيته”[8].
  3. ويورد أ. محمد عمر أحمد في دراسته بعنوان الصوفية في الصومال..’الطريقة’ تبحث عن دور، نشر على موقع مسلم أونلاين مجموعة من الأسباب أدّت إلى انحسار مكانة الطرق الصوفية لدى المجتمع الصومالي، حيث يسرد الأسباب الآتية:
  • ضعف حجج الصوفية في الدّفاع عن السلوكيات التي يطلقها خصومها بالشركيات أو الخرافات، وخاصة فيما يتعلّق بكرامات الأولياء الصالحين والتبرك بالقبور.
  • تصاعد قوّة التيار السلفي المسلّح بحجج قوية.
  • وقوف الصوفية إلى جانب النظام القائم آنذاك والّذي أغضب الكثير من المجتمع بسبب تصّرفاته السياسية وخاصة فيما يتعلّق بأمور الدين، فوقوف الصوفية إلى جانب ذلك النظام جعلها سيّئة السمعة مما نفّر عنها المجتمع الصومالي[9].

كلّ هذه الأسباب وغيرها جعلت الصوفية في دائرة منعزلة عن الشؤون العامة للمجتمع الصومالي، واكتفت بممارسة طقوسها التعبّدية في الزوايا والمزارات الخاصة بها، أضف إلى ذلك أن الطرّق الصوفية لم يكن لديها كوادر شبابية تساهم في تسويق رسالتها وخاصة، أن التيارات التي تواجهها كانت تمتلك مجموعة من الشباب المسلحين بالعلم الحديث حيث حصلوا على درجات علمية كالبكالاريوس والماجستير والدكتوراه، مما جعل هذه التيارات مواكبة لمتطلبات العصر.

وعند سقوط النظام العسكري في الصومال وخلال فترة الحروب الأهلية لم يكن للصوفية دور يذكر في تلك الفترة، إلا إذا استُثني من ذلك جهود المحكمة الإسلامية الشهيرة في مقديشو والتي كان يترأسها الشيخ علي طيري أحد علماء الطرق الصوفية في الصومال، والتي ساهمت في استعادة أمن أجزاء واسعة من العاصمة، في حين أن التيارات الأخرى كانت بصماتها واضحة في كلّ موقع حيث كانت تساهم هذه التيارات في عمليات الإغاثة بسبب علاقتها القوية مع الخارج كما كانت تساهم في عمليات المصالحة بين القبائل المتناحرة في أجزاء من الصومال.

كلّ هذه العوامل أدّت إلى ضمور دور الطرق الصوفية في المجتمع الصومالي، إلاّ أنّه لم يختف تماما، لترسخ جذور الصوفية في كثير من مكوّنات المجتمع الصومالي.

انبعاث جديد للصوفية:

ربما راجعت الطرق الصوفية سياساتها تجاه المجتمع الصومالي فأدّى ذلك إلى أن تغيّر أسلوبها في الدعوة والتعليم، فلم تكتف بالزوايا والروابط التقليدية التي تنشر العلوم الإسلامية والعربية فقط، بل توجّه بعض دعاتها إلى ممارسة النظام التعليمي الحديث، مما أعطاها نخبة من المثقفين وحاملي الشهادات العلمية كالدكتوراة والماجستير وغيرهما في تخصصات مختلفة.

كما طوّرت الصوفية نظامها التدريسي وجعلته مواكبا لتغيّرات العصر، حيث أنّها قامت في تأسيس جامعتين – على الأقل- في مقديشو تقدّم التخصصات المختلفة، وهذا يعني نفض الغبار عن الصوفية.

وتخطّت الصوفية إلى السياسة، حيث أن تنظيم أهل السنة والجماعة الّذي يتمركز بثقله السياسي والعسكري في الأقاليم الوسطى الصومالية، يمثّل الطرق الصوفية في الصومال، وخاض هذا التنظيم حروبا دامية مع حركة الشباب في كثير من المناطق الوسطى في الصومال منذ 2008م.

أما علاقتها الخارجية مع نظرائها في العالم الإسلامي فيبدو أنّها قد تطوّرت، حيث أن الطرق الصوفية الصومالية “استضافت فعاليات مؤتمر التصوّف العالمي السابع لأول مرّة في مقديشو، وشارك فيه مندوبوا الطرق الصوفية لــ 11 دولة في مختلف العالم الإسلامي من بينهم تركيا، العراق، لبنان، السودان، مصر، المغرب، السنغال، جيبوتي، بريطانيا، والصومال، وألقى المشاركون في المؤتمر ورقات بحثية متعددة أكدوا فيها حاجة العالم الإسلامي إلي إحياء دور التصوف وتشجيع المتصوفة لمواجهة التحديات التي تهدد العالم الإسلامي، كما استعرضوا فيه الجهود الجبارة التي بذلتها الصوفية في نشر تعاليم الإسلام الصحيح، والأدوار المختلفة التي لعبتها في المجتمعات الإسلامية على مدى التاريخ”[10].

الخاتمة:

لعبت الطرق الصوفية دورا واسعا -لا يمكن إنكاره- في نشر الإسلام وتعاليمه بالصومال، إلاّ أنّه يؤخذ عليها إدخال بعض الخرافات والبدع التي تتنافي مع الإسلام وتعاليمه في دعوتها إلى الإسلام، مما جعل التيارات المعارضة لها تهاجمها عبر هذه النافذة. ويرى بعض المتابعين للحركات الإسلامية في المنطقة تقدير الجهود التي بذلتها الطرق الصوفية في المنطقة والسعي معا إلى إزالة الشوائب التي تشوب أفكار الحركات الإسلامية كلها مما ليس له علاقة بالإسلام، كما أنّه ينبغي لجميع الحركات الإسلامية أن تتوحّد وتتفق على العمل سويّا لنشر الإسلام والدفاع عنه من الدعوات الضالة والمنحرفة التي تستهدف إلى تشويه المسلمين ودينهم.

المصادر والمراجع

[1] . د. محمد عبدالله النقيرة، انتشار الإسلام في شرقي أفريقية ومناهضة الغرب له، دار المريخ، الرياض، 1402هـ/1982م، ص: 164

[2] . المصدر السابق، ص: 168.

[3] . د. أحمد شلبي، موسوعة التاريخ الإسلامي، جـ6، مكتبة النهضة المصرية، ص: 211.

[4] . د. محمد عبدالله النقيرة، انتشار الإسلام في شرقي أفريقية ومناهضة الغرب له، دار المريخ، الرياض، 1402هـ/1982م، ص: 159 _ 160.

[5] . المصدر السابق، ص: 160 _ 161.

[6]. علي رجب، http://www.almarjie-paris.com/2474

[7] . https://www.aljazeera.net/news/reportsandinterviews/2015/11/28/%D8%AA%D8%B1%D8%A7%D8%AC%D8%B9-%D8%AF%D9%88%D8%B1-%D8%B7%D8%B1%D9%82-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B5%D9%88%D9%81%D9%8A%D8%A9-%D9%81%D9%8A-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B5%D9%88%D9%85%D8%A7%D9%84

[8] . https://www.aljazeera.net/news/reportsandinterviews/2015/11/28/%D8%AA%D8%B1%D8%A7%D8%AC%D8%B9-%D8%AF%D9%88%D8%B1-%D8%B7%D8%B1%D9%82-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B5%D9%88%D9%81%D9%8A%D8%A9-%D9%81%D9%8A-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B5%D9%88%D9%85%D8%A7%D9%84

[9] . https://www.moslimonline.com/?page=artical&id=251#.XQnEc0453IU

[10] . عبدالعزيز أحمد جدف، أضواء على فعاليات مؤتمر التصوّف العالمي السابع في الصومال، http://alrasdi.com/%D8%A3%D8%B6%D9%88%D8%A7%D8%A1-%D8%B9%D9%84%D9%8A-%D9%81%D8%B9%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%8A%D8%A7%D8%AA-%D9%85%D8%A4%D8%AA%D9%85%D8%B1-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AA%D8%B5%D9%88%D9%81-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B9%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%85/

عمر محمد معلم حسن

الكاتب عمر محمد معلم حسن باحث أكاديمي وكاتب صومالي

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