أخبارأخبار متنوعةالركن الثقافيمقالات

مـاهــيـة الـكـلام

اللسان آلة للنطق ، والعقل أداة للتمييز ، العيون أجهزة للملاحظة ، الأيدي للنفع والمضرة ، للأخذ والعطاء والأصابع فروع للشر أو الدروع للخير، الفم حجرة للإطباق وغُرفة لِكَتم الأسرار، وحفرة للابتلاع المؤن.

والقلب للجسم كمحرك السيارة ، أو كالكوابح في السيطرة والسرعة ، والضمير مسمار النفس وميزان التوازن ،  الفكرة عُصارة العقل والجُهد ، البطن وعاء ، الأرجل حوامل ، والعين بصيرة …

خُلاصة القول ، قال تعالى : (هَٰذَا خَلْقُ اللَّهِ فَأَرُونِي مَاذَا خَلَقَ الَّذِينَ مِن دُونِهِ ۚ بَلِ الظَّالِمُونَ فِي ضَلَالٍ مُّبِينٍ) سورة لُقمان- الآية (11) .

هذه المقدمة المعقدة والمترابطة! مقدمة للموضوع أكثر تعقيداً وترابطاً ، وهو الكلام وماهية الكلام …

لا أملك القدرة على أن أقول أن الكلام مخلوق ! أو منزل من الله ! وليس في وُسعي أن أثبت أنه ظهر في مكان فلان في ذاك الزمان ! أقصد كلام الأمم والشعوب، وأستثني كلام الله والقرآن، فذلك مبين ومثبت في كتاب عند ربي لا يضيع ولا ينسى، ويندرج تحت هذا الموضوع ( الصوت – القول – الكلام – اللغة )، لأن ذلك الإنسان القديم في قِدَم الزمان اقترع هذه الأدوات واستخدمها ليتواصل، بدءاً بالإشارة والإيماءة ومروراً بصوت وأشباه كلام، ثم اللغة .

بتعدد الشعوب والقوميات والقارات تعددت اللغات، وبتوسع أفراد الشعب الواحد تفرعت لغته إلى لهجات..

ما الفرق بين الصوت والكلام والقَول ؟ ! فهل هُناك فرق بين اللغة والكلام ؟ كيف يصدر الصوت ؟ وما هي المراحل لصناعة الكلام ؟ هل السكوت من الكلام ؟ أيما أقدم السكوت أم الكلام ؟..

لو لا النطق ما كان الكلام ، ولولا الكلام ما كان التواصل ، ولولا التواصل ما كان الاجتماع والانسجام …

يعرّف الكلام اصطلاحاً: القدرة على إصدار الأصوات بشكلٍ واضحٍ وصحيح، إضافةً لوضع هذه الأصوات مع بعضها لتتناغم بسهولة ضمن إطارِ الإيقاع والصوت الصحيح، وينتج عنه تمييز وفهم الأصوات الناتجة بكلّ سهولةٍ ويسر عن طريق جملٍ وكلمات.

تمر عملية صناعة وإخراج الكلام بأربعة عمليات هي :

عمليّة التنفّس لتوليد طاقةٍ قادرةٍ على إنتاج الصوت

توليد الصوت من الحنجرة عن طريق الأوتار الصوتيّة
الرنين اللازم لإعطاء الصوت الناتج خصائص متفرّدة تعرف بالتكلم

النطق: هي الحركة المفتعلة بالفم واللسان، والتي يتمّ من خلالها تشكيل الوحدات الصغيرة للصوت والتي ينتج عنها الكلام .

اللغة : نسق من الرموز والإشارات التي يستخدمها الإنسان بهدف التواصل مع البشر، والتعبير عن مشاعره، واكتساب المعرفة، وتعدّ اللغة إحدى وسائل التفاهم بين الناس داخل المجتمع، ولكل مجتمع لغة خاصّة به،

وتعرف اللغة اصطلاحاً بأنّها عبارة عن رموز صوتيّة لها نظم متوافقة في التراكيب، والألفاظ، والأصوات، وتُستخدم من أجل الاتصال والتواصل الاجتماعيّ والفردي .

يكمن الفرق بين اللغة والكلام في أنّ اللغة هي عبارة عن نظامٍ من عددٍ من الرموز الصوتيّة المنظمة والمتفق عليها ضمن البيئة اللغويّة الواحدة، باعتبارها حصيلة استخدامٍ متكرّر لرموزٍ صوتيّة تشكّل معانٍ مختلفة،

أما الكلام فهو عبارة عن الكيفيّة الفرديّة لاستخدام اللغة .

الصوت : لا يفيد معنى دون إضافته إلى شيء أو كائن، قد يكون أصوات الحيوانات أو جمادات والطبيعة كحفيف أوراق الشجر وخرير المياه …

القول : المراد بالقول، اللفظ الدال على معنى ، ما صدر عن شخص أو عن جهة ، عملية توجيه الحديث أو الكلام لشخص أو لمجموعة من الناس بغرض إيضاح فكرة معيّنة، وقد يكون ما يُكتب حسب السياق …

الكلام : أعم وأشمل من القول ، وهو شكل من أشكال الممارسة الاجتماعية الهادفة للوصول إلى عقل المتلقي، أو الجمهور بصورة أشمل قد يكون خطاباً أو حواراً أو نقاشاً أو نُصحاً وإرشاداً .. 

أخيراً الإنسان معجزة وعقله معجزة وآلاته معجزة ، ومن أدوات الإنسان الكلام ، والكلام معجزة ابن آدم وقد يكون السكوت من الكلام والقول جزءاً من الكلام وكذلك الصوت، وقد نتطور ونتقدم ونستغني عن الكلام ، فالكلام ذاته مر بمراحل عدة ، أو نقترع آلة أخرى نتواصل فيها مستقبلاً ، وذك ليس بمستحيل، فنحن في عصر تكنولوجيا وانفجار معلوماتي ، نمسي حالاً ونصبح عكسها .

قد يكون مقالي هذا وتعريفي قاصراً ومبتوراً أو خيالاً، يزعج فقهاء اللغة ويقض مضاجع علماء الكلام، لكنه اجتهاد فردي يُحتمل خطأه وصوابه، كونه تعريف شخصي ومنتج خاص.

عبد الرزاق عــمــر جــيــلــدون

صحفي جيبوتي ورئيس قسم التربية والتدريب في معهد الجيبوتي للفنون بوزارة الشؤون الإسلامية والثقافة والأوقاف

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