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الواقع التعليمي في المدارس القرآنية في الصومال (الواقع – المأمول)

كان التعليم الابتدائي والإعدادي في الصومال يوفر كل الحاجات التعليمية للمواطنين في عهد سياد بري، بحيث تدرس المدارس مناهج تعليمية تسير وفق حاجات المجتمع وفلسفة البلاد، وتهتم بغاية أبناء الوطن. ولكن بعد سقوط الحكومة المركزية تغيّرت كل الأدوات والنشاطات التعليمية إلى العكس، وأصبح التعليم الابتدائي والإعدادي غير متوازن لا توقر للمواطنين التعليم والمهارات المطلوب لنهضة البلد وتطوره، كما تم هدم جميع مباني المدارس على أيدي الجبهات القبلية المسلحة التي سيطرت على البلاد.

ويعاني التعليم النظامي في الوقت الحالي  كثيرا من المشاكل، أبرزها عدم انتشار المدارس في أنحاء البلاد، وافتقارها إلى منهج دراسي موّحد، إضافة إلى عدم خضوع المدرسين بها للتدريب اللازم بغية تسليحهم بمهارات التعليم وقواعد التربية.

المدارس القرآنية

ومن عادات الأسر الصومالية إلحاق أبنائهم بمدارس تحفيظ القرآن في وقت مبكر من أعمارهم، حرصا على تعلمهم مهارات الكتابة والقراءة قبل تسجيلهم في المدارس النظامية، حيث كانت مدارس تحفيظ القرآن في السابق منفصلة عن المدارس النظامية التي تدرس بالعلوم المختلفة.

نظام  التدريس في مدارس تحفيظ القرآن في الصومال

يعتبر تعليم القرآن وحفظه من أهم إنجازات التعليم في الصومال، ويبدأ تعليم القرآن بتدريب الطلاب بكتابة و قراءة الحروف العربية، وبعدها يبدأ المعلم بتحفيظ الطالب القرآن بدأ من سورة الفاتحة ثم سورة الناس ثم سورة الفلق. ويحفظ الطالب قليلاً من آيات القرآن حسب قدرته أمام المعلم صباحاً ومساء، والمعلم يستمع إليه ويصحّح الأخطاء واللحن الصوتى… وأنا من الطلاب الذين حفظوا القرآن من مدارس هرجيسا بعد سقوط الحكومة المركزية في الصومال، جزى الله أهل خير الجزاء وخاصة معلمينا الذين جاهدوا حق الجهاد في سبيل تحفيظنا لكتاب الله..

من هو معلم القرآن الكريم وما صفاته؟

إذا نظرنا إلى مدارس تحفيظ القرآن في مدينة هرجيسا، فإن المعلمين والقائمين على أمر تلك المدارس  هم حفاظ القرآن، ولكن مع الأسف الشديد لا يعرفون أحكام القرآن وتجويده، كما يدرسون الطالب القرآن حفظاً لا تفسير فيه ولا تأويل.

في العادة، مدرسو مدارس تحفيظ القرآن هم من أبناء البادية الذين هجروا إلى القرى والمدن دون تلقي أي تعليم نظامي، حيث يبدؤون بحفظ القرآن، ليقوموا بعد الانتهاء من حفظ القرآن بفتح مدارس قرآنية خاصة بهم، ويفرضون رسوماً دراسية خاصة بهم، دون تمتعهم بأي خبرة في التدريس. وهو ما أدي إلى انخفاض جودة التعليم في مدارس تحفيظ القرآن، وفوضى عارمة في هذا القطاع الهام من التعليم، بحيث ترى في كل حي من أحياء هرجيسا أكثر من سبعة أو تسعة مدارس لها مناهج تعليمية وأهداف مختلفة.علاوة على ذلك، فإن تلك المدارس لا تتمتع بنظام دراسي منظم له مراحل دراسية متدرجة، تبدأ وتنتهي بمرحلة معينة، وهو ما أدى إلى فوضى تعليمية تؤثر سلبا على تعليم الجيل الناشئ.

الواقع والمأمول في المدارس القرآنية في الصومال.

تعتمد مدارس تحفيظ القرآن في الصومال على النهج التقليدي للتعليم، بمعنى أن المدرسين يتبعون طريقة التلقين والحفظ والسماع فقط ، وهذه الأدوات لا تشتمل على باقي مستويات التفكير العالي ولا تراعي الفروق الفردية، أضف إلى ذلك أن بعض المشاكل  الانضباطية التي تحدث بين الطلاب وإدارة المدرسة أو بين الإدارة و المدرسين تعود إلى أسباب تتعلق بقلة الخبرة من قبل المدرسين. كما يمكن أن تتسبب قلة خبرة مدراء المدارس  إلى تفكك وانشطار داخل جسم المدرسة ، و تمثل قلة الرواتب الشهرية للمدرسين أيضا من أهم معوقات تطور طرائق تعليم القرآن الكريم ، مثلا: إذا كان الفصل مكون من 35 طالباً وكل طالب يدفع رسوما شهريا قيمته 10$ يكون المجموع 350$، إضافة إلى ذلك، فإن الفترة الدراسية الصباحية تبدأ من 7:30 صباحاً إلى 12:00 ظهراً، وفي المساء تكون ما بين 4:00 إلى 5:30، بينما يتقاضى المدرس 100$-150$.

فكل هذه العوامل تشير إلى أن  هدف المدارس القرآنية في الصومال هو التجارة و تحقيق الربح ، والذي يؤدي إلى ضمور الإخلاص لله في هذا العمل، وهو ما يعبر عنه كثير من المراقبين الذين يرون أن الغرض من وراء هذه المدارس كسب المال وتحقيق الربح المالي.

ونأمل في أن تهتم المدارس القرآنية في الصومالية بتدريب المعلمين في مجال التدريس سواء في داخل البلاد وخارجه، لأن نجاح المدرسين يتوقف بدرجة كبيرة على التدريب الذي يؤهل المدرسين القدرة على انضاج التلاميذ لحفظ القرآن بصورة نموذجية، أضف إلى ذلك، أن توفر عددا كبيرا من المدرسين المؤهلين في المدارس القرآنية يحفز الطلاب على مواصلة تعليمهم ، والإعداد الكمي للمعلمين مهم لازدياد أعداد التلاميذ في المدارس. ومن جانب آخر فإن ارتفاع مرتبات وحوافز المعلمين يسبّب في رفع درجة الإقبال على مهنة التدريس في المدارس، وإيثار المعلمين على مهنة التدريس والتركيز على تثقيف المجتمع.

كما نأمل أن تصبح المدارس القرآنية مصدرا لغرس العقيدة الإسلامية في  نفوس الطلاب وذلك عن طريق تعليمهم القرآن الكريم وحفظه، لأن القرآن هو مادة الأساسية في غرس العقيدة وصناعة الأخلاق، ويساهم في ارتفاع مكانة الفرد في مجتمعه من الناحية السلوكية والأخلاقية والدينية، و ينمي المهارات الفردية التي تساعد الطالب على اكتشاف الطاقات والموارد المتنوعة، كما يوسع الحفظ والتفكير لدى الطلاب الدارسين في مدارس حفظ القرآن الكريم.

حسن عبدالرزاق عبدالله

طالب، دكتوراة في التربية _ مناهج وطرق التدريس. جامعة بخت الرضا.

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