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الصومال في القرن العشرين ( الحلقة الثانية)

أ‌) الموقع الجغرافي والإستراتيجي للصومال.
تقع الصومال فى شرق أفريقيا فى المنظقة المعروفة بالقرن الأفريقي، ويحدها من الشمال خليج عدن، ومن الجنوب كينيا، ومن الشرق المحيط الهندي، ومن الغرب إثيوبيا.
بالنسبة لجغرافية الصومال، فهي شبه جزيرة تشبه فى شكلها الرقم الإنجليزي (7)، وتبلغ مساحتها 637،541 كيلو متر مربع تقريبا، وتمتد بين خطي 12 شمالا، و 3 جنوبا، ويبلغ طول الساحل الصومالي بين باب المندب شمالا ورأس كامبونى جنوبا نحو 3330كلم.
والتضاريس فيها تختلف من مكان لآخر ، فعندما نجد سهلا متدرجا فى الجنوب نجد الشمال تحتله سلسلة “جولس” الجبلية، التى يصل معدل ارتفاعها حوالى خمسة آلاف قدم، وتمتد موازية لخليج عدن
وبهذا يمكن أن نقسم سطح الصومال إلى قسمين سهول ساحلية تمتد بمحاذاة خليج عدن والمحيط الهندي، وتتسع هذه السهول فى الجنوب ، وتبلغ أقصى اتساع لها فى جوبا السفلى، ومرتفعات حيث ترتفع الأرض تدريجيا كلما اتجهنا نحو الغرب، ويبلغ أقسى ارتفاع لها فى منطقة “أوجادين” المتآخمة لهضبة الحببشة، كما تمتد بعض المرتفعات فى الجزء الشمالي والمشمال الشرقي.
أما المناخ فعند استواء الشمس، عموديا على خط الإستواء الذى يمر قرب مدينة كسمايو جنوب الصومال تكون حرارة الشمس فى أشدها إلا فى المناطق المرتفعة حيث يخفف الإرتفاع من حدة الحرارة كثيرا، أما الرياح فهناك رياح موسمية جنوبية غربية وتهب ما بين مايو وأكتوبر، وتجلب أمطارا غزيرة للمناطق الداخلية، وأخرى شمالية شرقية، وتهب ما بين شهري نوفمبر وأبريل، وباختصار يمكن تلخيص هذا الإختلاف فيما يأتى:
– الفترة من يناير إلى أو اخر مارس: فترة حرارة وجفاف (الصيف)
– الفترة من أبريل إلى أواخر يونيو: فترة موسم سقوط الأمطار (الربيع)
– الفترة من يوليو إلى أواخر سبتمبر: فترة جفاف وطقس بارد نسبيا (الشتاء)
– الفترة من أكتوبر إلى أواخر ديسمبر فترة موسم الأمطار (الخريف)
ويخترق فى الصومال نهران كبيران، هما نهرجوبا الذى هو عبارة عن ثلاثة أنهار التقت عند حدود الصومال مع إثيوبيا فى منطقة تسمى “دولو” جنوب الصومال فيتكون نهر جوبا الكبير والذى يصب فى البحر عند قرية تسمى “جومبيو” قرب مدينة كسمايو فى الجنوب، والثانى هو نهر شبيلى والذى يتحول إلى مستنقعات، وينتهى قبل أن يصل إلى المحيط الهندى قرب قرية “هاوى” ، فى الجنوب فى شبيلى السفلى.
بالنسبة للنشاط السكانى، فتعتبر حرفة الرعي هي الحرفة الرئيسية فى البلاد حيث يشتغل بها معظم السكان الذين يملكون أعدادا ضخما من الأبقار والإبل والعنم، والتى ترعى فى مراعى طبيعية واسعة لا تحدها حدود، ويعتز الصوماليون بهذه الحرفة. إضافة إلى ذلك فهناك حرفة الزراعة بحيث تتوافر فى البلاد الأراضى الخصبة الصالحة للزراعة. وتنقسم الرزراعة تبعا لطريقة الري إلى زراعة نهرية تعتمد على نهري جوبا وزراعة تعتمد على مياه الأمطار وهي أكثرها فى البلاد، وزراعة تعتمد على العيون، والمسيلات وهي محدودة جدا.
ومنطقة القرن الإفريقي، تطلق على الصومال بمدلولها الجغرافي، أما المدلول السياسي فإن تعبير القرن الإفريقي يشمل الدول المجاورة للصومال، ، مثل كينيا وإثيوبيا وجيبوتى وأرتيريا، حتى السودان فى بعض الأحيان ومنطقة القرن الإفريقي تتمثل فى ذلك البروز من أقصى شمال شرق إفريقيا ممتدا من الساحل الصومال إلى جيبوتى والذى يسيطر على باب المندب، وهو المكان الذي يلتقى عنده البحر الأحمر والمحيط الهندي، ويمتد ساحل البحر الأحمر المسافة 600 ميل، وبذلك فإن الأهمية الأستراتيجية فى القرن الإفريقي تمثل فى أنها تشرف على مضيق باب المندب مما يجعلها تسيطر على أهم الممرات المائية العالمية . وجعلها موضع اهتمام القوى الدولية المتصارعة.
ومنذ نجاح الكشوفات الجغرافية فى البحار الشرقية ظهرت الصومال فى ميدان الصراع العلمي لما تتضمنه من مواقع استر اتيجيه هامة فى شرق إفريقيا ولأنهاقاعدة إشراف وإدارة وتوجيه لكل منطقة في شرق أفريقيا والجنوب العربي.
ومعنى ذلك فإن المنظقة تتحكم فى طريق البترول بين منطقة الخليج ودول أوروبا الغربية والولايات المتحدة الأمريكية والطرق الدولية للتجارة العامة إلى المحيط الهندي عبر باب المندب وقناة السويس.
والمنطقة الصومالية بصفة مجاورتها للبحر الأحمر الذى يتوسط بين أكثر مناطق العالم حساسية مثل الشرق الأوسط والقرن الإفريقي، تزداد أهميتها الإستراتيجية وتجعلها عر ضة للصراعات الدولية.
ومما أكسب الصومال أهمية خاصة أن لها سواحل طويلة فيها العديد من الموانى البحرية الهامة، مثل ميناء مقديشو العالمي، وكسمايو، وبوصاصو، وبربرة، وغيرها، وهذا ما تفقده كثير من الدول وخاصة دول المنطقة، كإثيوبيا مثلا، وكذلك ما تبحث عنه الدول الكبرى وتتنافس على التحكم فى مثل هذه السواحل الطويلة التى تسهل لها تحقيق أهدافها ومصالحها. فقد سار عت كل من الدول الاستعمارية إلى احتلال جزء من هذه المنطقة الإستراتيجية عند تقسيم إفريقيا فى مؤتمر برلين عام 1885، وبعد استقلال الصومال تنافست الدول الكبرى وخاصة الإتحاد السوفييتى والولايات المتحدة الأمريكية، فقد حاول الإتحاد السوفييتى كثيرا ضم الصومال وإثيوبيا واليمن عند ما كانت هذه الدول تابعة للمعسكر الشرقي لإدخالها فى حلق يدور فى فلك الإتحاد السوفيتي ولكنه فشل فى ذلك. وبعد خروجه من الصومال عا 1977 بسبب النزاع الإثيوبي الصومالي، وقد أيد الجانب الإثيوبي، وسارعت الولايات المتحدة الأمريكية لتحل محله فى القواعد العسكرية التى أخلاها بعقد اتفاقية مع الصومال.
هذه الأهميةة الجغرافية والإستراتيجية والجيوبولوتيكية للصومال جعلتها عرضة للأطماع سابقا ولا حقا، ويرى الباحث أن هذه الأهمية سببت للصومال مشاكل كثيرة ومتاعب جمة منذ ان تعرف العالم على هذه المنطقة عن طريق الكشوفات، ولم تزل المنطقة فى صراع دائم، مرة مع المستعمر ومرة مع القوى العظمى وخاصة أثناء الحرب الباردة، وأخيرا تعانى من تدخلات أجنبية ساهمت فى تفككها وانهيار مقوماتها السياسية والإتصادية، حيث تتجاذب القوى الخارجية والأطراف المتصارعة لتضمن كل قوة مصالحها إن قامت للصومال قائمة.

الدكتور حسن البصري

رئيس جامعة إمام، حاصل على درجة الدكتوراه في التاريخ من جامعة بحر الغزال - الخرطوم ، عام 2011م، ودرحة الماجستير في التاريخ الحديث من جامعة النيلين - الخرطوم، السودان عام 2006م، وحصل البكالوريوس من جامعة مقديشو كلية الآداب، قسم التاريخ. عام 2001م

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