يكاد ينعدم مفهوم أو التصور الكلى للمواطنة والوطنية عند الصوماليين، وإذا وجد وجدان عند البعض فإنه لايرقى الى المستوى التصورى الصحيح للمواطنة، ومنشأ هذا – في نظرى – يرجع إلى أمور منها: طبيعة المجتمع الصومالى الرعوية وأصوله البدوية، والتي بالطبع تتطلب الإنتقال والارتحال من وإلى أماكن متباينة ومختلفة، وتقسيم الإستعمار للأراضى الصومالية وإخضاعه إلى دول الجوار مما أدى إلى تشتيت وتفكيك الأسرة الواحدة بعدة مناطق مختلفة تخضع كل واحدة إلى سيادة دولة مجاورة، مما بدوره يؤدى إلى الإنتقال السهل والسريع من منطقة إلى أخرى وإكتساب جنسيتها والتوطن عليها، وهكذا تكون الحلقة مفتوحة إلى مالانهاية وهو ما أسفر بضياع الهوية الصومالية بحيث افتقدت الأساس التكوينى للهوية لأن الهوية تكوّن كما هو معلوم وقضية إعادة الهوية قضية شائكة ومعقدة وتحتاج إلى بحث مستقل وإجراء دارسات تطبيقية عديدة وتكاتف الخبرات وتعاون المتخصصين في مجال الدراسات الإنسانية المختلفة.
وإذا أعدنا الذاكرة قليلاً إلى الورى ونظرنا الفن الصومالى بأنواعه نجد أن القدامى قد حالوا بإبراز مفهوماً للمواطنة في الأدب الصومالى كل حسب الألم الذي يساوره والحزن والأسى الذي يحرق داخله بما آلت اليه الأمور من ضياع الحرية وفقد الوطنية وحب الوطن ، وما حل بنا من وهن وذل وضعف… الخ.
نلمس هذه الأحاسيس كلها ضمن السياق الشعرى أو الأدبى في الفن الصومالى، وكثيرُ من تلك الأبيات ركبت فيها اللحن والموسيقى وغنّ بها المغنّون واستعمله قدمائنا لإشعال حماس – خصوصاً زمن الحرب- الحربيين والمناضلين وإثارة عواطف الشباب والشعب لتوظيف كافة مقدراتهم على سبيل الوطن ؛ وأشهر من استخدم هذا هو النظام العسكرى بقيادة جنرال “محمد سياد برى” رحمة الله عليه وذلك حرب الصومالى الإثيوبى لسنة 1977م.
فما عدا ما أشرنا اليه فلا يوجد مفهوم جامع مانع للمواطنة لدى الصوماليين عموماً إلا ما يستثنى منه وهو شاذ اذا قورنت بمفاهيم القانونية والشرعية السالفة الذكر.
خلاصة الكلام عن المواطنة:
كما أشرنا سابقاً عند الكلام عن مفهوم المواطنة عند القانون الوضعى بأنها – رغم اختلاف نظرة فقهاء القانون فيها- عبارة عن عقد يعقدها بين طرفين الفرد من جهة والدولة من جهة أخرى؛ بحيث يترتب على ذلك مجموعة من الحقوق المطلوب للدولة توفيرها للفرد وواجبات يجب للمواطن التحمل بها وما ينشأ منها من مسؤوليات سواء كانت تقصيرية أو جنائية أو غير ذلك من المسؤوليات.
وتطرقنا بالنظرة الإسلامية لمفهوم المواطنة وقلنا أن مفهومها قبل مجيئ الرسالة المحمدية كانت قائمة على أساس القبلى والعشائرى وأن الإسلام قد ألغى تلك المفاهيم وجعل الناس سواسية كأسنان المشط وأن المواطنة كانت قائمة بعد إقامة الدولة الإسلامية على أساس العقيدة بحيث مجرد إعتناق الإنسان على هذه العقيدة الجديدة يصبح مواطناً للدولة الإسلامية ويتمتع بكافة الحقوق التي يتضمنها الدستور أو الصحيفة وبالمقابل يتحمل الواجبات والتبعات المترتبة على ذلك.
وقلنا أن الأحكام التي كانت مطبقة في صدر الإسلام تستحيل تطبيقها في عصر التكنولوجيا والعولمة وزمن تقسيمات النظم السياسية المختلفة والمتضادة بعضها – اذا صح التعبير-، وفي عصر الدولة القطرية والوطنية وأوردنا بعض اجتهادات علماء العصر أمثال : “د:يوسف القرضاوى، وأحمد الريسونى، وغيرهم لم نورد في مقالنا” القاضى بإمكانية إقامة الخلافة الإسلامية بشكل النظم العصرية كالفدرالية أو الكونفدرالية، ورأي آخر فحواه بأنه إنعدام الخلافة عند المسلمين لايؤدى بالضرورة الى فقدان الدين ولا يؤثر بمثقال ذرة من ذلك ولكن اذا اختفى العدل والشورى ونظام الحكم فتلك طامة كبرى.
وإلى هنا نكتفى موضوع “مفهوم المواطنة” والتي قصدتها ضمن محاولة شخصية بسيطة لتوضيح بعض جوانب الموضوع والذي مما لاريب فيه أكبر بكثير مما سطرته هنا وأعمق بكثير مما اتضح لي وأصعب بكثير سبر أغواره وإحاطة أطرافه وجوانبه، وهناك أطروحات كثيرة وكتب ضخمة ناقشت الموضوع بموضوعية وعلمية ولكن محاولة صوملة المعرفة أراها ضرورية لأننا ما زلنا في بداية الطريق والذي نرجو أن يهوينا الى حضارة وتطور تلحق بنا الى الأمم المتقدمة بنا بآلاف ميل وقرون .
I needed to post you a very small word in order to say thanks a lot as before on your marvelous opinions you’ve shared on this site. It’s quite tremendously open-handed with you in giving publicly what exactly numerous people could have sold for an electronic book to get some profit on their own, particularly considering that you might well have tried it if you desired. The concepts in addition worked to be a easy way to fully grasp some people have similar passion much like my very own to know the truth a whole lot more when it comes to this issue. I’m certain there are several more pleasant opportunities in the future for many who see your blog post.
Thanks for all of your hard work on this web site. Debby delights in going through internet research and it’s really obvious why. All of us learn all concerning the lively way you provide insightful information through this blog and in addition invigorate contribution from other individuals on that concern then our favorite daughter is undoubtedly being taught a whole lot. Enjoy the remaining portion of the new year. You are performing a really great job.
A lot of thanks for every one of your labor on this web page. Kim really likes working on internet research and it’s really easy to understand why. Many of us hear all about the powerful means you offer functional guidelines on your web blog and therefore welcome participation from other individuals about this idea and my daughter is undoubtedly being taught a great deal. Take advantage of the rest of the new year. You are conducting a fantastic job.
My wife and i felt so ecstatic that Michael managed to conclude his research by way of the ideas he obtained out of the web site. It’s not at all simplistic just to possibly be giving out key points that many the rest might have been selling. And we all keep in mind we need you to be grateful to because of that. All the illustrations you’ve made, the simple website navigation, the friendships you will make it easier to engender – it is mostly overwhelming, and it’s aiding our son in addition to our family know that this concept is interesting, which is exceedingly vital. Thank you for the whole lot!
I not to mention my buddies ended up taking note of the excellent techniques found on the blog then unexpectedly I had an awful suspicion I had not thanked the website owner for those techniques. The people happened to be consequently thrilled to learn them and have extremely been making the most of them. Appreciate your being so thoughtful and also for making a choice on certain high-quality information most people are really needing to know about. My very own honest regret for not saying thanks to sooner.
I must get across my affection for your generosity in support of people who should have help on this important matter. Your special dedication to getting the solution throughout came to be exceedingly good and have really helped guys like me to reach their aims. Your insightful suggestions can mean a great deal a person like me and still more to my colleagues. Many thanks; from everyone of us.
I truly wanted to develop a word to be able to appreciate you for all the lovely solutions you are giving out at this site. My time intensive internet lookup has finally been rewarded with good points to talk about with my family members. I ‘d state that that many of us website visitors are rather lucky to dwell in a fantastic place with many special professionals with helpful things. I feel rather grateful to have encountered your website page and look forward to so many more cool minutes reading here. Thanks again for everything.
Thank you so much for providing individuals with remarkably memorable opportunity to read in detail from here. It’s always so terrific plus stuffed with a good time for me personally and my office colleagues to search the blog no less than thrice in a week to read through the newest tips you have. Of course, I am just always pleased with all the beautiful opinions served by you. Some 1 tips in this article are unquestionably the most effective we have all had.
I really wanted to post a simple word so as to express gratitude to you for the stunning solutions you are giving out here. My particularly long internet investigation has finally been compensated with brilliant tips to talk about with my colleagues. I would repeat that many of us site visitors actually are truly blessed to dwell in a great site with many marvellous people with very helpful tips. I feel rather happy to have come across your entire web page and look forward to many more fabulous times reading here. Thank you once again for all the details.
I intended to create you a very small word just to thank you the moment again for your personal magnificent tips you’ve provided above. It was so tremendously generous of you giving publicly just what a number of people might have sold as an ebook to generate some dough on their own, most importantly seeing that you might well have tried it if you decided. Those inspiring ideas likewise worked as the easy way to fully grasp that some people have a similar keenness just as mine to realize lots more in respect of this matter. I know there are several more pleasurable sessions in the future for many who look over your blog post.
I am writing to let you understand what a incredible experience my cousin’s girl had checking your site. She figured out a good number of things, not to mention how it is like to have an incredible coaching mood to make many others without difficulty master specific tortuous matters. You undoubtedly exceeded our own expected results. Thank you for presenting such productive, dependable, educational as well as fun tips about your topic to Julie.
I truly wanted to develop a brief word so as to say thanks to you for those stunning hints you are posting on this website. My long internet search has finally been rewarded with good strategies to exchange with my close friends. I would assert that many of us readers are quite endowed to be in a fantastic place with very many lovely individuals with interesting tactics. I feel pretty privileged to have encountered your entire webpages and look forward to many more pleasurable times reading here. Thanks a lot once more for everything.
My spouse and i got really comfortable when Emmanuel could finish off his analysis through your ideas he made out of the web pages. It is now and again perplexing to simply happen to be giving out things men and women could have been making money from. So we discover we have got the blog owner to be grateful to because of that. Those illustrations you have made, the simple web site navigation, the friendships you aid to engender – it’s got everything spectacular, and it’s making our son in addition to our family consider that this idea is entertaining, and that is wonderfully indispensable. Thanks for all!
I have to convey my appreciation for your kind-heartedness for individuals who need assistance with this important area of interest. Your special dedication to passing the message all around became definitely valuable and have all the time encouraged people like me to get to their desired goals. Your entire insightful guide can mean so much a person like me and much more to my fellow workers. Thanks a lot; from each one of us.
I needed to compose you the very little remark to help say thanks a lot yet again for the breathtaking principles you’ve featured above. It is really seriously generous of you to supply without restraint precisely what a lot of people would have distributed as an ebook to get some cash on their own, primarily now that you might have tried it in the event you considered necessary. The concepts in addition worked to provide a fantastic way to fully grasp some people have the same zeal much like my personal own to see significantly more around this issue. Certainly there are several more enjoyable occasions in the future for many who examine your site.
I and my buddies came studying the excellent key points from the website and all of a sudden came up with an awful feeling I had not thanked you for them. The women are already as a result excited to learn them and already have actually been loving those things. Appreciation for getting considerably considerate and then for making a decision on some beneficial subject areas millions of individuals are really eager to be aware of. My personal sincere regret for not expressing gratitude to you sooner.
I not to mention my friends ended up looking at the excellent recommendations located on your web page and so quickly came up with a terrible feeling I had not thanked the web blog owner for those techniques. My boys appeared to be absolutely glad to see them and have in effect in truth been using those things. We appreciate you getting really thoughtful as well as for choosing this kind of wonderful useful guides most people are really desirous to learn about. My personal sincere regret for not expressing gratitude to sooner.
I really wanted to write down a brief word to be able to appreciate you for these great advice you are giving at this website. My long internet look up has at the end of the day been paid with excellent content to talk about with my neighbours. I would assume that many of us site visitors are extremely lucky to be in a wonderful community with so many awesome people with helpful pointers. I feel very much grateful to have used your webpage and look forward to really more fun minutes reading here. Thanks a lot once more for all the details.
Thanks so much for providing individuals with an extremely terrific chance to check tips from this web site. It’s usually very ideal and as well , jam-packed with a great time for me and my office friends to search the blog at least 3 times weekly to read the fresh things you will have. Not to mention, I am also actually fascinated concerning the fantastic advice you give. Certain two tips on this page are in truth the most beneficial we have had.
I intended to put you this very small word so as to say thank you once again relating to the magnificent strategies you have featured on this page. It is incredibly open-handed with you to allow openly what exactly numerous people could have distributed for an electronic book to earn some profit on their own, and in particular since you could have done it if you ever wanted. Those things likewise worked to be a great way to realize that other people online have similar keenness the same as my own to realize good deal more with regard to this condition. I am certain there are some more enjoyable times up front for individuals who read your website.
I definitely wanted to type a small remark to appreciate you for these magnificent techniques you are showing on this site. My considerable internet investigation has at the end been paid with really good strategies to go over with my co-workers. I ‘d mention that most of us website visitors are unequivocally blessed to exist in a remarkable community with many perfect people with insightful tricks. I feel rather fortunate to have come across your web page and look forward to tons of more enjoyable times reading here. Thanks again for all the details.
I want to show my appreciation to you just for bailing me out of this particular dilemma. Right after researching through the world-wide-web and meeting solutions which are not productive, I believed my entire life was gone. Living minus the approaches to the problems you have resolved by way of the short post is a crucial case, and ones that would have in a negative way affected my entire career if I hadn’t encountered your blog. Your primary talents and kindness in touching almost everything was tremendous. I don’t know what I would’ve done if I hadn’t encountered such a point like this. I can also at this point look ahead to my future. Thank you so much for your professional and effective guide. I won’t think twice to recommend your web blog to anybody who should get guidelines on this subject matter.
A lot of thanks for all your hard work on this web page. My aunt enjoys doing investigations and it is simple to grasp why. Most people hear all about the dynamic medium you make good secrets through this blog and even recommend participation from other people on this issue so our favorite simple princess is always learning a whole lot. Take pleasure in the remaining portion of the new year. You’re the one doing a dazzling job.
A lot of thanks for your whole work on this site. My mum takes pleasure in making time for research and it is simple to grasp why. Many of us notice all of the powerful means you deliver valuable tactics via your website and therefore welcome contribution from the others on that content while our child is now learning a lot of things. Take advantage of the remaining portion of the new year. You have been performing a useful job.
I just wanted to post a remark in order to appreciate you for the amazing tips and hints you are writing on this website. My rather long internet research has now been paid with reasonable strategies to talk about with my classmates and friends. I ‘d express that we website visitors are unquestionably endowed to be in a magnificent website with many special people with helpful tips and hints. I feel very grateful to have come across the web site and look forward to many more excellent moments reading here. Thanks once again for everything.
I precisely desired to thank you very much once again. I am not sure the things that I would’ve used without the type of recommendations documented by you concerning this subject. It truly was an absolute intimidating dilemma in my opinion, but considering a skilled technique you handled the issue took me to cry over delight. I am thankful for this advice and in addition believe you recognize what a powerful job you have been putting in teaching many others by way of a web site. I am certain you have never got to know any of us.
My spouse and i have been absolutely satisfied when Ervin managed to do his investigation because of the precious recommendations he made while using the site. It’s not at all simplistic to simply choose to be handing out facts most people may have been trying to sell. And we consider we have the blog owner to be grateful to for that. The type of explanations you made, the easy web site menu, the friendships your site help foster – it’s got mostly powerful, and it is making our son in addition to our family reason why the topic is fun, and that is especially vital. Thanks for everything!
I needed to write you that tiny remark to finally say thanks once again for your personal pretty tricks you have shared at this time. It was simply particularly generous with you to give unreservedly all that many people could have supplied for an electronic book to get some profit on their own, mostly since you could have done it in case you desired. These tactics likewise worked to become good way to be aware that the rest have the identical dream the same as my personal own to understand great deal more in respect of this problem. I know there are some more fun periods in the future for those who read your blog.