الصراع على اقليم شبيلي السفلى…. الأسباب والحلول
الأهمية الاستراتيجية لاقليم شبيلي السفلى
يعتبر اقليم شبيلى السفلى من أهم المناطق التي يقع على جنوب الصومال ويمتد من مدينة أفجوي على بعد 30 كم جنوب مقديشو وصولا الي سبلالي الواقعة على غرب مدينة برواة الساحلية. ويضم الاقليم، سبع مدن رئيسية وهي مركا العاصمة وأفجوي وولنوين، وقريولي وبراوة وكنتواري وسبلالي. ويحده من الغرب محافظتي باي وجوبا الوسطى ومن الشمال العاصمة مقديشو ومحافظة شبيلي الوسطى ومن الشرق المحيط الهندي.
يمر باقليم شبيلى السفلى نهر (شبيلي) الذي يصل طوله نحو 1500 كلم وينبع من هضبة الحبشة بين خطي عرض 8 و 10 شمال خط الاستواء غير بعيد عن منابع نهر جوبا . ويبلغ مساحة منابع هذا النهر نحو 2680 مترا. ويبلغ طول المسافة التي يسير فيها نهر شبيلي في موازاة المحيط الهندي نحو 300 كيلو متر ، أما متوسط الاتساع للوادي فبين 150 و200 كيلو متر ، وهو في العادة وادي منبسط ، وأكبر روافده نهر توج فافان الذي ينبع قرب هرر .
وتشغل الأراضي الصالحة للزراعة والرعي حوالي 95% من مساحة اقليم شبيلي السفلى التي تبلغ نحو 300 كلم بينما يقدر مساحة الأراضي الصالحة للزراعة في الصومال بـ 80 مليون دنم أي ما يعادل 13 % من مجمل مساحة البلاد، وما تم الاستغلال من تلك المساحة لا يشكل سوى 10 ملايين دنم وتنتشر غالبيتها في قطاعات محدودة من محافظتي شبيلي السفلى وشبيلي الوسطى وخاصة في مناطق مهداي وبلعد وأفجوي ومدينة مركا التي تحتضن معظم مزارع الموز، العصب الرئيسي للاقتصاد الصومالي، وبالمناسبة لا يزرع هذا الشجر الذي طافت شهرته العالم سوى مساحة لاتتعدى نحو 100 الف دنم في أفجوي وجنالي (شبيلي السفلى) ومريري ( جوبا الوسطى).
وكانت الشركات الايطالية أوئل من أكتشف زراعة الموز في منطقة شبيلي السفلى وذلك عقب احتلال الاستعمار الايطالي جنوب الصومال آواخر القرن التاسع عشر حيث قام المستعمر الايطالي عام 1925 بالسيطرة على مناطق زراعية شاسعة في مقاطعة مركا كانت تزرع بالقطن وجعلتها تحت ملكية شركات ايطالية حولتها الي مزارع للموز وذلك بموجب اتفاق جرى بين المستعمر الايطالي وسطان بيمال آنذاك علي عيسي، حيث نص الاتفاق على أن تكون تلك الأراضي تحت تصرف الشركات الايطالية لمدة 50 عاما تمتد ما بين 1925- 1975. لكن عندما انتهت المدة المتفق عليها قامت الحكومة الصومالية التي كانت تحكم البلاد في ذلك الحين، بتأميم مزارع الموز مما حال دور ارجاع ملكية تلك الأراضي للمزارعين الأصليين.
كذلك يوجد في الاقليم مساحات واسعة صالحة للرعي ممتدة من قرية بولو مرير جنوب مركا حتى منطقة (دعارهة )في سبلالي حيث تتركز الماشية ( الأبقار) في تلك الأجزاء، بسبب وفرة الأمطار وقربها من نهر شبيلي الذي يفيض خلال موسم الامطار كما تشتهر تلك المنطقة بادغال كثيفة يعيش فيها ما تبقي من الحيوانات البرية كالنمور والقرود والفيلة…
يوجد في الاقليم أيضا مطارات ومواني طبيعية صالحة لتصدير المحصولات الزراعية ومن بينها مينائي مركا وبراوة ومطار بلدوغلي ومطار رقم 50 ومطار عيل أحمد الذي يقع في الضاحية الجنوبية لمدينة مركا.
كان ميناء مركا خلال حقبة الاحتلال الإيطالي ثاني ميناء من حيث كمية البضائع التي كانت تصدر إلى الخارج وخصوصا الموز، لكن الميناء دمر خلال الحرب الأهلية واصبح اقليم شبيلي السلفي منطقة تحكم مليشيات قبلية تفرض اتاوات على صغار المزارعيين والرعاة الذين يشربون من نهر شبيلي مما اثار حفيظ كثير من سكان الاقليم.
أما ميناء براواة الذي كان من أهم المناطق السياحية والتجارية في جنوب الصومال أصبح اليوم واحدا من المنافذ التي تمر عبره التجارة غير المشروعة كالحطب والعاج واناث الماشية.
أسباب الصراع في الاقليم
الأزمة في الاقليم ليست وليدة الصدفة وانما تعود جذورها الي زمن الاستعمار الذي حرم شعوب تلك المنطقة من الاستفاذة من المنافع والثروات التي خص الله لهذا الاقليم دون غيره -أثبتت دراسة أجريت ابان حكم سياد بري أن الموز لا يمكن زراعتة الا في مناطق محددة من الاقليم ولاسيما في قرى تابعة لمدينتي أفجوي ومركا- وحارب كل الحركات التحررية التي قامت من اجل الحرية والعدالة الاجتماعية والعيش الكريم بغية احتكار زراعة الموز وتصديره.
لم ينته الصراع بانتهاء الاستعمار وخروج الايطاليين من أرض الصومال عام 1960 وانما قام الاستعمار بتسليم دور القمع والاضطهاد للأنظمة التي تولت الحكم بعد الاستقلال والتي منحت امتيازات الاستثمار لشركات ايطالية انفردت بزراعة الموز وتصديره الي الخارج محرمة سكان الاقليم من الاستفاذة من خيرات بلادهم في وقت كانت توفر فرص العمل في مزارع الموز لفئات معنية مكافأة لتعاونها مع الايطاليين ابان عهد الاستعمار.
وبعد انهيار النظام المركزي في البلاد عام 1991 سقط اقليم شبيلي السفلى في قبضة مليشيات قبلية، تابعة لزعماء الحرب التي عاثت الاقليم فسادا وتقتيلا واستحوذات مقدراراته وهو ما رزع في نفوس بعض العشائر ضغائن دفينة كادت أكثر من مرة أن تنفجر لكن وجهاء العشائر المضطهدة ولا سيما المنحدرين من أصول عربية أو المنتمين الي عشيرة دجل وميرفلي الذين حالوا دون قيام انتفاضة ضد تلك الميشيات على أمل أن تنتهي دولة الأقوياء سريعا، وينتقل البلاد الي حكومة فدرالية تحكم بين الناس بالعدل وتعطي كل ذي حق حقة غير أن المدة على ما يبدو طالت والآمال العريضة على الحكومة بدأت تتبدد.
خلال النصف الثاني من العام الجاري لقي عشرات من الأشخاص مصرعهم وأصيب آخرون جراء عمليات عنف ومعارك قبلية -تتورط فيها ضباط من أمن الدولة- لا تزال تتواصل في عدة مدن باقليم شبيليي السفلى، وتركزت تلك المعارك على المناطق الاستراتجية التي تشتمل على معظم الحقول الزراعية في جنوب الصومال والتي كانت ولاتزال أحد أهم مصادر الاقتصاد في لبلاد، والوجهة المفضلة للشركات المحلية الأجنبية المهتمة باستثمار المناطق الواقعة على ضفافي نهر شبيلي- ثاني أكبر الأنهار في البلاد الممتازة بزراعة مختلف أنواع الذرة، والبقوليات والأرز والأشجار المثمرة كالموز الذي يشتهر به الصومال والمانجو والحمضيات بكل أشكالها وانواعها.
فهذا النعمة التي منّ الله على سكان الاقليم تحولت الي نقمة، وتسبب الي صراع على نهر شبيلي ، ويعتقد البعض أن رجال اعمال محليين هم الذين يقفون وراء اذكاء جذوة الحرب في الاقليم من أجل الحصول على امتيازات الاستثمار ولا يبالون تدعيات هذا الامر من حياء صراعات قديمة وتعزيز الشرخ الكبير بين العشائر الصومالية ولاسيما بين العشائر الكبيرة التي كانت تهيمن سلطة البلاد خلال زمن الحرب والي الآن والعشائر الضعيفة وسط تعاقس حكومي على ايجاد حل نهائي ينزع فتيل الأزمة .
هذا ويمكن حصر أسباب النزاع في الاقليم على ثلاث نقاط:
1- إدارة الاقليم
يعتقد البعض أن عشيرة واحدة تحاول السيطرة على حكم الاقليم والانفراد بمقدراته ما دفع قبائل أخرى لها نفوذ في العاصمة مقديشو الي حمل السلاح ومواجهة هذا الخطر في حين يرى آخرون أن المشكلة تأتي من جهات سيادية تريد ابقاء الضغوط على الاقليم كي تواصل سيطرتها على مزارع الموز في الاقليم.
2- ملكية الأراضي الزراعية ومزارع الموز على وجه الخصوص.
يوجد في قرى بولو مرير، وجنالي، وابوتي، ومشاني، وغاور،ي وأخرى كثيرة مزارع للموز صادرها الاستعمار والحكومات السابقة من القبائل القاطنة في تلك القرى وهذه القبائل تسعى اليوم الي استرجاع فيما تسميها بـ “حقها الأصيل” فيما يرفض الطرف المسيطر حاليا على تلك الأرضي التخلي عنها وتسليمها الي المزارعين الأصليين.
3- شكل الحكم الفيدرالي في الاقليم.
حتى الآن لم يتم التوافق على أي الحكومات سيتبع اقليم شبيلي السفلى هل يكون تحت ادارة الحكومة المركزية أم سيخضع لإدارة جنوب غرب الصومال التي يتوقع اعلان تشكيلها في مدينة بيدوة قريبا.
ماهي الحلول المتاحة ؟
ليس الصراع الدائر في منطقة شبيلي السفلى بالأمر الهين ، فهو صراع معقد امتد لفترة طويلة ويحتاج الي قرار شجاع من الحكومة الصومالية، لأنها هي المسؤولة أمام الله وأمام شعبها عن اخماد نار الفتنة وحماية أرواح عشرات الابرياء التي تقتل في القرى والبوادي ظلما وعدوانا كما انها المسؤولة عن منع انزلاق البلاد الي اتون حرب أهلية جديدة. لذلك يجب على الحكومة أن تتخلى عن سياسة اللامبالاة واستخدام عامل الوقت لحسم القضايا العالقة؛ لأن تلك السياسية لها انعكاسات سلبية على مسيرة السلام التي يقودها الرئيس الصومالي حسن شيخ محمود وتسبب تداعيات خطيرة على التعايش السلمي بين أبناء الوطن الواحد. فجميع الخطوات التي قامت بها الحكومة حتى الأن لمعالجة الصراعات القبلية كانت مشجعة وتنم عن المسؤولية الوطنية والرغبة في منع تفاقم الوضع لكن النية الحسنة وحدها لا يكفي، وينبغي للقيادة العليا تنظيم مؤتمر وطني عام يشارك فيه جميع أبناء الاقليم في الداخل والخارج لوضع خارطة طريق لحل مشكلة تلك المنطقة المهمة في استقرار وازدهار البلاد.
3- جغرافية العالم الاسلامي
4- تاريخ الصومال قديما وحديثا
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فعلي الحكومة الصومالية إبعاد الغزاة الجدد الذين نهبو ثروة سكان شبيلي السفلي, السكان الأصليون يستحقون الأولوية.
سكان هذه المنطقة صبرو ٢٣سنة، لذلك… إبعاد هؤلاء الغزاة من إقليم شبيلي السفلي وإلا ستعود الصومال الي الحروب الأهلية من جديد.
أشكر لصاحب المقال علي هذه المعلومة القيمة وكل ما ذكر هي حقيقة لا يمكن إستنكارها
صاحب المقال واضح انه جزء من المشاكل وللاسف فكرته لاتبني عن الحقيقه خالص